How do you extract phycocyanin from spirulina?

The process conditions include: 1) freeze the spirulina 3 hours to extract the crude protein; 2) add 80 g/L (w/v) activated carbon to the crude extract; 3) use a vacuum filter with a 0.22 m pore size membrane to collect the extract; and 4) freeze dry the extract to get the C-PC powder.

What is algae phycocyanin?

Abstract. Phycocyanin is a non-toxic, water-soluble pigment protein from microalgae that exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective effects.

What is phycocyanin made of?

Phycocyanin shares a common structural theme with all phycobiliproteins. The structure begins with the assembly of phycobiliprotein monomers, which are heterodimers composed of and subunits, and their respective chromophores linked via thioether bond. Each subunit is typically composed of eight -helices.

What is phycocyanin used for?

Phycocyanin can promote animal blood cell regeneration, improve lymphocyte activity and lymphatic system to improve immune function, and comprehensively enhance the disease resistance of the body 73.

How do you purify phycocyanin?

Several methods including aqueous two-phase extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, charcoal and chitosan adsorption, membrane filtration, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography have frequently been used to purify c-phycocyanin29.

How do you pronounce phycocyanin?

Where is phycocyanin found?

The blue pigment, phycocyanin is found in blue-green algae and cyanobacteria. The red pigment, phycoerythrin is found in the red algae commonly referred to as the rhodophytes.

What is phycocyanin phycoerythrin?

Abstract. Phycocyanin and phycoerythrin are photosynthetic pigments extracted from microalgae with great biotechnological potential due to their intense colors, fluorescent properties and potential health benefits.

When should you not take spirulina?

While some studies suggest that spirulina does not affect blood clotting time, little is known about its effects on people who are already taking blood thinners ( 18 , 19 ). Thus, you should avoid spirulina if you have a bleeding disorder or are on blood thinners.

Is phycocyanin a chlorophyll?

Chlorophyll pigments are found in many types of organisms such as plants, cyanobacteria, and algae while phycocyanin pigments are mainly found in freshwater cyanobacteria.

What is the difference between phycoerythrin and phycocyanin?

is that phycoerythrin is (protein) a red, light-harvesting protein found in cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptomonads while phycocyanin is (biochemistry) a pigment from the light-harvesting phycobiliprotein family, along with allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin, an accessory pigment to chlorophyll.

Is phycocyanin a carotenoid?

Arthrospira platensis is the widely available source of spirulina that contains distinctive natural pigments, including carotenoids and C-phycocyanin (C-PC). … The carotenoid profiles suggested that the commercial spirulina powders originated from two different sources, A. platensis and A.

When should I take spirulina?

How to include spirulina in the diet

Is phycocyanin present in blue-green algae?

Blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) are a group of prokaryotic, autotrophic microorganisms that contain the photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll and phycocyanin).

Is spirulina a fluorescent?

Spirulina platensis is a cyanobacterium which usually lives under high-light conditions. Nonetheless, it is thought to contain the most red-shifted antenna pigment of all known Chl a-containing phototrophic organisms, as shown by its 77 K fluorescence peaking at 760 nm.

Where do you find Phycobiliproteins?

cyanobacteria Phycobiliproteins are water-soluble proteins present in cyanobacteria and certain algae (rhodophytes, cryptomonads, glaucocystophytes) which capture light energy, which is then passed on to chlorophylls during photosynthesis.

Do red algae have Phycobilins?

Phycobilins are found in red algae and cryptomonads. They are also found in cyanobacteria. Inside the cells of these organisms, the phycobilins collect light energy from the sun and pass this energy to the primary pigment, which is the chlorophyll.

How do you pronounce spirulina?

How do you pronounce rhodophyceae?

How do you pronounce Xanthophyll?

Can spirulina cause liver damage?

Spirulina has been implicated in isolated case reports in causing clinically apparent liver injury, but the role of spirulina as opposed to other herbal components or contaminants has not been shown. Liver injury due to spirulina must be very rare if it occurs at all.

Is spirulina safe for kidneys?

If you are susceptible to gout attacks or kidney stones, then spirulina may be harmful to you. To avoid excessive uric acid, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center suggest limiting the intake of spirulina to 50 grams per day.

What is phycocyanin in biology?

Introduction. Phycocyanin (PC) is a blue, light-harvesting pigment in cyanobacteria and in the two eukaryote algal genera, Rhodophyta and Cryptophyta. It is PC that gives many cyanobacteria their bluish colour and why these cyanobacteria are also known as blue-green algae.

What is the predicted color of phycoerythrin?

Absorption peaks in the visible light spectrum are measured at 495 and 545/566 nm, depending on the chromophores bound and the considered organism. A strong emission peak exists at 575 10 nm. (i.e., phycoerythrin absorbs slightly blue-green/yellowish light and emits slightly orange-yellow light.)

Which wavelength of light is absorbed by phycocyanin?

Phycocyanobilin forms the phycobiliproteins phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, which absorb between 595 and 640 nm and between 650 and 655 nm, respectively.

What does R mean in phycoerythrin?

RPE. Rsonance Paramagntique Electronique (French: Paramagnetic Electronic Resonance) RPE. R-Phycoerythrin.

Does spirulina thicken hair?

5. Promotes hair growth. According to Simpson, With 70% protein, fatty acids and iron, spirulina offers a synergy of nutrients needed to promote hair growth. And one of the best ways to reap the benefits of spirulina’s hair growth capabilities is by ingesting supplements formulated with the blue-green algae.

Does spirulina make you smell?

If the spirulina smells ‘fishy,’ this is not a good sign. Many low-grade spirulina brands actually do have a fishy smell. Stay far away from this.

Does spirulina make you sleepy?

Although few adverse effects are associated with the use of spirulina, consuming spirulina may cause headaches, allergic reactions, muscle pain, sweating, and insomnia in some cases. People with allergies to seafood, seaweed, and other sea vegetables should avoid spirulina.