The concentration factor formula, based on the percent recovery for an RO system, is useful for calculating the concentration of dissolved substances in the concentrate stream: concentration factor = 1/(1-percent recovery as a decimal).

What is stress concentration factor?

A stress concentration factor (Kt) is a dimensionless factor that is used to quantify how concentrated the stress is in a mechanical part. It is defined as the ratio of the highest stress in the part compared to a reference stress.

Why stress concentration factor is important?

Why Understanding the Stress Concentration Factor (Kt) is Important When Evaluating Corrosion in Metal Structures. Corrosion damage, such as pitting, results in the magnification of local stresses around cracks and cavities due to stress concentration.

What is concentration factor in chemistry?

Concentration can be a conversion factor between the amount of solute and the amount of solution or solvent (depending on the definition of the concentration unit). As such, concentrations can be useful in a variety of stoichiometry problems.

What is concentration factor in biology?

The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is the ratio of the concentration of the substance in a specific genus to the exposure concentration, at equilibrium.

How do you reduce the concentration factor of stress?

4 methods of reducing stress concentration

  1. Include gradual transitions in the design. The most common cause of stress concentrations is an abrupt change in geometry or an abrupt shape transition. …
  2. Use relief notches. …
  3. Opt for several small relief notches as opposed to a single long one. …
  4. Avoid sharp corners.

What is the difference between the stress concentration factor and stress intensity factor?

The stress concentration factor is a number that raises stress locally due to factors such as holes and change in cross section. … Stress intensity factor is a bit different; it is an inherent property of the material that is tested and defined for cracks or flaws.

What is meant by stress concentration How do you take it into consideration in case of a component subjected to dynamic loading?

Stress concentration occurs at the junction of two different diameters or around discontinuities like holes At these places the stress value increases more than the average values. It is more pronounced in dynamic loading.

What do u mean by stress concentration & How will you mesh for such regions?

A stress concentration is a place of the mesh where the stress raises above the applied nominal stress. It behaves in a similar fashion than stress singularities, but the stress will converge towards a finite value, not infinite, given that the mesh is sufficiently refined.

What is concentration in chemistry class 9?

The concentration of a solution is the amount of solute present in a given quantity of the solution. The solution having small amount of solute is called Dilute Solution. The solution having large amount of solute is called Concentrated Solution.

Is concentration and molarity the same?

Yes, there is a difference between concentration and molarity. As you indicated with concentration as g/L of Kg/L, concentration is the ratio of the amount of solute per amount of solution. Meanwhile, molarity is a unit of concentration that relates the amount of moles of a solute per liter of solution.

Why is concentration important in chemistry?

The concentration of a solute is very important in studying chemical reactions because it determines how often molecules collide in solution and thus indirectly determines the rates of reactions and the conditions at equilibrium (see chemical equilibrium). Concentration may be expressed in a number of ways.

What are some examples of bioaccumulation?

Examples of bioaccumulation and biomagnification include:

What is the difference between Bioamplification and bioaccumulation?

Bioamplification (or biomagnification, as the picture shows) refers to an increase in the concentration of a substance as you move up the food chain. … In contrast, bioaccumulation occurs within an organism, where a concentration of a substance builds up in the tissues and is absorbed faster than it is removed.

What is difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification?

1) What is the difference between bioaccumulation and biomagnification? Bioaccumulation refers to the accumulation of a toxic chemical in the tissue of a particular organism. Biomagnification refers to the increased concentration of a toxic chemical the higher an animal is on the food chain.

What is stress concentration and state its remedies?

A stress concentration (also called a stress raiser or a stress riser) is a location in an object where the stress is significantly greater than the surrounding region. … Fatigue cracks always start at stress raisers, so removing such defects increases the fatigue strength.

How is concentration of stress avoided in steel beams?

So to prevent a body from getting failed, the concentration of stress should be avoided or reduced. … By decreasing the nominal diameter of a threaded object and make it equal to the core diameter. 4. By providing notches or undercut at the sharp corners.

What is meant by stress concentration explain how its value can be reduced?

Additional Notches and Holes in Tension Member (a). It is observed that a single notch results in a high degree of stress concentration. The severity of stress concentration is reduced by three methods: (a) Use of multiple notches, (b) Drilling additional holes; and (c) Removal of undesired material.

Is stress intensity factor negative?

Abstract: The values of the stress intensity factor (SIF) KIare almost always negative in the substrate of the gear teeth, due to the compressive stresses field. … Instead, SIF KII is determinant in the growth rate of the fatigue crack by mode II, in terms of compressive stresses field.

Why the stress intensity factor is different to your fracture toughness?

In fracture mechanics, a stress intensity factor is calculated as a function of applied stress, crack size, and part geometry. Failure occurs once the stress intensity factor exceeds the material’s fracture toughness. At this point the crack will grow in a rapid and unstable manner until fracture.

What is stress intensity factor K?

The stress intensity factor (K) is used in the field of fracture mechanics. It predicts stress intensity near the tip of a crack caused by a remote load or residual stresses. The magnitude of K depends on: Sample geometry. Size and location of the crack.

Is concentration factor is defined as?

concentration factor The amount by which an element must be increased above its normal crustal abundance in an ore to make it commercially extractable.

What are stress raisers and how do they originate in metal specimens?

Stress-raisers are sharp corners, grooves, notches or acute changes of section that cause stress concentrations under normal loadings. They can be found on both rotating and static components. … Avoid sharp shoulders, grooves, keyways and slots.

Why is stress concentration very serious in brittle materials than ductile materials subjected to static load?

Stress concentration has negligible effect on the ductile materials subjected to static loads. … Stress concentration has more severe effect on the brittle materials due to their inability to plastically deform.

How can you reduce stress concentration when there is abrupt change in cross-section?

Sudden change in the cross-section leads to very sharp bending of stress lines which results in stress concentration. Therefore by avoiding severe bending of the stress lines, effect of stress concentration can be reduced.