How does convection cause ocean currents quizlet?

How does convection cause ocean currents quizlet?

Explain how the process of convection can cause ocean currents. Water is warmed by the energy from the sun. When this warm water loses heat and cools, it becomes denser and begins to sink down. This constant exchange of heat energy creates convection currents as warm water rises and cold water sinks.

What causes currents in the ocean?

Ocean currents are driven by wind, water density differences, and tides. Oceanic currents describe the movement of water from one location to another.

Which causes convection currents to form in the oceans and the atmosphere?

The heating of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives convection within the atmosphere and ocean. This convection produces winds and ocean currents. The greater the pressure differences between a low-pressure area and a high-pressure area, the stronger the winds.

How does a convection current transport energy?

Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by particles moving through a fluid. … Moving particles transfer thermal energy through a fluid by forming convection currents. Convection currents move thermal energy through many fluids, including molten rock inside Earth, water in the oceans, and air in the atmosphere.

What causes ocean currents quizlet?

A directional movement of ocean water; surface currents result from steady winds over the ocean surface; deep ocean currents result from density variations due to temperature and salinity differences.

How does global warming affect ocean currents?

As greenhouse gases trap more energy from the sun, the oceans are absorbing more heat, resulting in an increase in sea surface temperatures and rising sea level. Changes in ocean temperatures and currents brought about by climate change will lead to alterations in climate patterns around the world.

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How is heat transferred by ocean currents?

Energy is moved from areas of surplus to those of deficit, with warm currents transporting warm water polewards and cold currents taking colder water to lower latitudes. … It holds onto this heat for longer than the land does and the ocean currents move this heat around, from the tropics to higher latitudes.

What do convection currents occur in?

In astronomy convection currents occur in the mantle of the Earth, and presumably some other planets, and the convection zone of the sun. Inside of the Earth, magma is heated near the core, rises toward the crust, then cools and sinks back toward the core.

How do convection occur?

Convection occurs when particles with a lot of heat energy in a liquid or gas move and take the place of particles with less heat energy. Heat energy is transferred from hot places to cooler places by convection. Liquids and gases expand when they are heated. … Convection currents can be seen in lava lamps.

What do convection currents do?

Convection currents transfer heat from one place to another by mass motion of a fluid such as water, air or molten rock. The heat transfer function of convection currents drives the earth’s ocean currents, atmospheric weather and geology.

How do convection currents help form underwater mountains?

Convection currents carry heat from the lower mantle and core to the lithosphere. … As tectonic plates slowly move away from each other, heat from the mantle’s convection currents makes the crust more plastic and less dense. The less-dense material rises, often forming a mountain or elevated area of the seafloor.

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What is the main cause of global convection currents?

Answer: The main cause of global convection currents is the uneven heating of the earth by the sun.

What causes convection currents in Earth’s mantle?

Convection Currents in the Mantle Heat in the mantle comes from the Earth’s molten outer core, decay of radioactive elements and, in the upper mantle, friction from descending tectonic plates. … The temperature difference between the upper and lower boundaries of the mantle requires heat transfer to occur.

What causes ocean currents quizlet earth science?

The oceans contain streamlike movements of water. Ocean currents that occur at or near the surface of the ocean, caused by wind.

What causes Earth’s major ocean surface currents quizlet?

What causes surface currents to move? It is caused by wind action, Earth’s spin, and the shape of the continents. Also, the speed, direction, and volume of water can be affected by the uneven heating of the atmosphere. The force of wind blowing over the top of the Earth.

What is the primary cause of ocean surface currents quizlet?

Surface currents occur at the surface of the ocean and are caused by global winds; the Gulf Stream is an example. Deep currents occur deep in the ocean and are influenced by water density, salinity, and temperature.

How does salinity affect ocean circulation?

Since warmer water thus can hold more salt and other molecules than cold water; it can have a higher salinity. To relate this to ocean currents, the higher the salinity of ocean water, the more dense it becomes. When the salinity is high enough, the water will sink, starting a convection current.

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How do melting glaciers affect ocean currents?

The melting ice causes freshwater to be added to the seawater in the Arctic Ocean which flows into the North Atlantic. The added freshwater makes the seawater less dense. This has caused the North Atlantic to become fresher over the past several decades and has caused the currents to slow.

How does climate change affect Earth’s oceans quizlet?

How does climate change affect earth’s oceans? The pH level of the ocean will shift to a more acidic environment, leading to stress and the possible extinction of many species of shellfish and corals.

What role do ocean currents play in transferring thermal energy?

These currents move water all around the earth, bringing warm water to cooler areas and vice versa. This redistributes thermal energy and causes changes in the weather.

Why do ocean currents move from equatorial to polar regions?

Water plays a central role in the climate system. … As the cold and salty surface water sinks by convection, salty water flows in from nearby warmer regions, from the direction of the equator. This water is then cooled in the Arctic air and also begins to sink, so that the convection is continuous.