Transmission: Machupo virus is spread through aerosolized, food-borne, or direct contact of virus particles. These particles result from the saliva, urine, or feces of Calomys callosus, the field mouse reservoir of the virus.

Who discovered Machupo virus?

BHF was first identified in 1963 as an ambisense RNA virus of the Arenaviridae family, by a research group led by Karl Johnson. The mortality rate is estimated at 5 to 30 percent. … Bolivian hemorrhagic fever.

Machupo mammarenavirus
Virus classification
Class: Ellioviricetes
Order: Bunyavirales
Family: Arenaviridae

What caused Bolivian hemorrhagic fever?

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (black typhus) caused by Machupo virus is a member of the family Arenaviridae known as the Tacaribe-LCMV complex that includes Lassa fever, Junin and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

What is Lassa fever virus?

Lassa fever is an animal-borne, or zoonotic, acute viral illness. It is endemic in parts of West Africa including Sierra Leone, Liberia, Guinea and Nigeria. Neighboring countries are also at risk, as the animal vector for Lassa virus, the “multimammate rat” (Mastomys natalensis) is distributed throughout the region.

What are symptoms of the Machupo virus?

Following an incubation period of 1-2 weeks, patients infected with Machupo virus may develop an influenza-like illness with fever, malaise, and fatigue followed by the onset of headache, dizziness, myalgias, and severe lower back pain.

How do you prevent Machupo virus?

The use of an effective vaccine against AHF and evidence for its cross-protection against Machupo virus suggest that vaccination may play a role in the prevention of BHF for persons at highest risk, such as workers who trap rodents for control programs (20).

Where is Machupo virus located?

Machupo virus is only found in Bolivia and was first described in 1959, although cases have been described in other neighboring Central American countries (Acha and Szyfres, 2003).

How do you get Marburg virus?

Marburg spreads through human-to-human transmission via direct contact (through broken skin or mucous membranes) with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected people, and with surfaces and materials (e.g. bedding, clothing) contaminated with these fluids.

What is Mayaro virus?

Mayaro virus disease is a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen endemic to certain humid forests of tropical South America. Infection with Mayaro virus causes an acute, self-limited dengue-like illness of 3–5 days’ duration. The causative virus, abbreviated MAYV, is in the family Togaviridae, and genus Alphavirus.

What is Argentine hemorrhagic fever?

Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF) is a rodent-borne illness caused by the arenavirus Junin that is endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. AHF has had significant morbidity since its emergence in the 1950s, with a case-fatality rate of the illness without treatment between 15% and 30%.

What is Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever?

Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread disease caused by a tick-borne virus (Nairovirus) of the Bunyaviridae family. The CCHF virus causes severe viral haemorrhagic fever outbreaks, with a case fatality rate of 10–40%.

What is the current best option for preventing future outbreaks of Ebola?

Ebola Vaccine This is the first FDA-approved vaccine for Ebola. This vaccine is given as a single dose vaccine and has been found to be safe and protective against Zaire ebolavirus, which has caused the largest and most deadly Ebola outbreaks to date.

When did the Ebola emerge as an infectious disease?

Emergence of Ebola in Humans Ebola virus disease (EVD), one of the deadliest viral diseases, was discovered in 1976 when two consecutive outbreaks of fatal hemorrhagic fever occurred in different parts of Central Africa.

What is yellow fever disease?

Yellow fever is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. The yellow in the name refers to the jaundice that affects some patients. Symptoms of yellow fever include fever, headache, jaundice, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and fatigue.

What does machupo mean?

Medical Definition of Machupo virus : a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Arenavirus (species Machupo virus) that causes a hemorrhagic fever endemic in Bolivia where its natural reservoir is a murid rodent (Calomys callosus)

What is Kyasanur forest disease?

Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever endemic to South-western part of India. The disease is caused by a virus belonging to the family Flaviviridae. KFDV is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected hard ticks (Haemaphysalis spinigera) which act as a reservoir of KFDV.

What does the Marburg virus do to your body?

Marburg virus disease is a severe disease that causes haemorrhagic fever in humans and animals. Diseases that cause haemorrhagic fevers, such as Marburg, are often fatal as they affect the body’s vascular system (how blood moves through the body). This can lead to significant internal bleeding and organ failure.

Does Marburg virus still exist?

World Health Assembly » Both diseases are rare, but can cause dramatic outbreaks with high fatality. There is currently no specific treatment or vaccine. Two cases of Marburg virus infection were reported in Uganda. One of the people, a miner, died in July, 2007.

When did Marburg virus start?

Marburg virus was first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, Germany and in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia).

What is Zika mosquito?

Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These mosquitoes bite during the day and night. Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus.

Do mosquitoes carry yellow fever?

Yellow fever virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes. Mosquitoes acquire the virus by feeding on infected primates (human or non-human) and then can transmit the virus to other primates (human or non-human).

Which mosquito is the most effective vector for arbovirus diseases in tropical locations?

However, all three viruses are associated with moderate to severe health consequences in a small proportion of cases. Two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, are among the world’s most prominent arboviral vectors, and are known vectors for all three viruses in the Americas.