Is Demeclocycline used for low sodium?

It is widely used (though off-label in many countries including the United States) in the treatment of hyponatremia (low blood sodium concentration) due to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) when fluid restriction alone has been ineffective.

How does Demeclocycline treat hyponatremia?

Demeclocycline, a tetracycline antibiotic, inhibits adenylyl cyclase activation after AVP binds to the V2R in the kidney, and thus targets the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. This therapy is typically used when patients find severe fluid restriction unacceptable and the underlying disorder cannot be corrected.

Does Demeclocycline cause hyponatremia?

Demeclocycline attenuates hyponatremia by reducing aquaporin-2 expression in the renal inner medulla. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol.

What is Demeclocycline used to treat?

Demeclocycline is used to treat infections caused by bacteria includingpneumonia and other respiratory tract infections;; certain infections of the skin, eye, lymphatic, intestinal, genital, and urinary systems; and certain other infections that are spread by ticks, lice, mites, and infected animals.

Why is demeclocycline banned?

However, demeclocycline is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to treat hyponatremia, and can cause nephrotoxicity in patients with heart failure and cirrhosis, although this is usually reversible (Singer and Rotenberg, 1973).

Which of these tetracyclines is used in the treatment of hyponatremia due to SIADH?

Demeclocycline (dem e kloe sye’ kleen) is a tetracycline antibiotic that is used for therapy of mild-to-moderate infections due to susceptible organisms. It is also used off-label as therapy of hyponatremia and SIADH.

What is the mechanism of action of tolvaptan?

Mechanism of action and uses Tolvaptan is a competitive antagonist at vasopressin V2 receptors. Its major action is in the renal collecting ducts to reduce water reabsorption and produce aquaresis without sodium loss, thus increasing free water clearance and correcting dilutional hyponatraemia.

What is the mechanism of action of desmopressin?

By mimicking the actions of endogenous ADH, desmopressin acts as a selective agonist of V2 receptors expressed in the renal collecting duct (CD) to increase water re-absorption and reduce urine production.

Is demeclocycline ADH an antagonist?

Demeclocycline is not a direct antagonist of the vasopressin receptors however, but rather inhibits activation of the intracellular second messenger cascade of this receptor in the kidney by an unknown mechanism.

What causes hyponatremia?

Hyponatremia is decrease in serum sodium concentration < 136 mEq/L (< 136 mmol/L) caused by an excess of water relative to solute. Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, liver disease, renal disease, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH).

Which tetracycline causes diabetes insipidus?

Demeclocycline is a tetracycline derivative that induces diabetes insipidus by impairing the generation and action of cAMP, thus interfering with the action of AVP on the collecting duct.

Is Demeclocycline a Vaptan?

Pharmacological therapy generally comprises a vaptan (specific vasopressin2 receptor antagonists) or demeclocycline in some countries (e.g. France and the UK); other options may include urea or loop diuretics or combinations of above treatments 16.

How long can you use Demeclocycline?

Demeclocycline is usually given for up to 2 days after symptoms and fever have cleared. Do not share this medicine with another person, even if they have the same symptoms you have. Store at room temperature away from moisture, heat, and light. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.

What is another name for Demeclocycline?

BRAND NAME(S): Declomycin. USES: Demeclocycline is used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections, including those that cause acne. This medication is known as a tetracycline antibiotic. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria.

What are the side effects of tolvaptan?

Common side effects of Samsca include:

What are the two most significant adverse reaction of aminoglycosides?

The major side effects of aminoglycosides are kidney injury, hearing impairment and vestibular toxicity.

What is the treatment for nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Treatment of Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Treatment consists of ensuring adequate free water intake; providing a low-salt, low-protein diet; and correcting the cause or stopping any likely nephrotoxin. Serious sequelae are rare if patients can drink at will.

What is foscarnet used to treat?

Foscarnet is principally used for the treatment of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or in transplant recipients.

What is doxycycline used for?

Doxycycline is an antibiotic. It’s used to treat infections such as chest infections, skin infections, rosacea, dental infections and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as a lot of other rare infections. It can also be used to prevent malaria if you’re travelling abroad.

How does SIADH cause hyponatremia?

The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is a disorder of impaired water excretion caused by the inability to suppress the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) [1]. If water intake exceeds the reduced urine output, the ensuing water retention leads to the development of hyponatremia.

How does hyponatremia occur in SIADH?

In general, the plasma Na+ concentration is the primary osmotic determinant of AVP release. In persons with SIADH, the nonphysiological secretion of AVP results in enhanced water reabsorption, leading to dilutional hyponatremia.

What type of diuretic is tolvaptan?

Tolvaptan is an orally active, non-peptide, selective V2 receptor antagonist. Selective AVP V2 receptor antagonists induce hypotonic diuresis without significantly influencing the excretion of electrolytes.

How does tolvaptan treat hyponatremia?

Tolvaptan is a breakthrough in the therapy of hyponatremia as it directly combats elevated AVP levels associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, congestive heart failure, and cirrhosis of the liver.

What is the function of anti diuretic hormone?

Anti-diuretic hormone helps to control blood pressure by acting on the kidneys and the blood vessels. Its most important role is to conserve the fluid volume of your body by reducing the amount of water passed out in the urine.

What does desmopressin do to the nephron?

It is also used to control bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis), and the frequent urination and increased thirst caused by certain types of brain injury or brain surgery. Desmopressin is similar to a hormone that is produced in the body. It acts on the kidneys to reduce the flow of urine.

How does desmopressin work for diabetes insipidus?

It works by increasing water permeability in renal tubular cells, which decreases urine volume and increases urine concentration. In people with diabetes insipidus due to trauma or surgery in the pituitary region of the brain, it reduces frequent urination and thirst.

Is desmopressin an anticholinergic?

Desmopressin plus anticholinergic agent in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis: A meta-analysis.

What medications inhibit ADH?

Vasopressin receptor antagonists (Vaptans) are a new group of nonpeptide drugs which have been used in various clinical conditions with limited success. Whereas conivaptan is to be administered intravenously, the other vaptans like tolvaptan, lixivaptan, and satavaptan are effective as oral medication.

What does ADH antagonist do?

Tolvaptan is a vasopressin receptor antagonist. Vasopressin (a.k.a. ADH or antidiuretic hormone) helps to regulate water retention by absorbing water in the collecting ducts of the nephron. Blocking this receptor will allow water to be excreted more readily.

What does vasopressin receptor antagonist do?

Vasopressin antagonists are drugs that bind to vasopressin receptors (V1A, V1B and V2) and block the action of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH), which is a hormone released by the pituitary gland. Vasopressin causes vasoconstriction and increases reabsorption of water by the kidneys.