Is Moraxella oxidase negative?

Is Moraxella oxidase negative?

The Pathogen Moraxella organisms are small, gram-negative bacteria that grow well on blood or chocolate agar. They are catalase and oxidase positive. These small diplococci are morphologically difficult to distinguish from Neisseria. Some Moraxella species are gram-negative bacilli.

How do you test for Moraxella catarrhalis?

Confirmation of the diagnosis of M catarrhalis infection is based on isolation of the organism in culture. Cultures can be taken from middle ear effusion, the nasopharynx, sputum, sinus aspirates, transtracheal or transbronchial aspirates, blood, peritoneal fluid, wounds, or urine.

What is the oxidase test for Neisseria and Moraxella?

The oxidase test is used to determine if an organism possesses the cytochrome oxidase enzyme. The test is used as an aid for the differentiation of Neisseria, Moraxella, Campylobacter and Pasteurella species (oxidase positive). It is also used to differentiate pseudomonads from related species.

How can you tell the difference between Neisseria and Moraxella?

They can be differentiated from Moraxella and Neisseria species by a catalase test. Most Kingella species are catalase negative; Moraxella and most Neisseria species (except Neisseria elongata) are catalase positive.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis serious?

While M. catarrhalis can be responsible for mild sinus and ear infections in children, it can be much more dangerous in people with a compromised immune system. M. catarrhalis usually stays in the respiratory tracts of adults who have illnesses like cystic fibrosis or an autoimmune disease.

Is Moraxella a Cocci?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative cocci that causes ear and upper and lower respiratory infections. M. catarrhalis is also known as Branhamella catarrhalis.

What diseases does Moraxella catarrhalis cause?

M. catarrhalis causes acute, localized infections such as otitis media, sinusitis, and bronchopneumonia as well as life-threatening, systemic diseases including endocarditis and meningitis.

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Does Moraxella catarrhalis need to be treated?

Amoxicillin-clavulanate, second- and third-generation oral cephalosporins, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) are the most recommended agents. Alternatively, azithromycin or clarithromycin can be used. More than 90% of M catarrhalis strains have been shown to resist amoxicillin, and these rates vary by region.

Where can Moraxella catarrhalis be found?

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, formerly called Neisseria catarrhalis or Micrococcus catarrhalis, is a gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus frequently found as a commensal of the upper respiratory tract (124, 126; G.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis viral or bacterial?

Moraxella catarrhalis (M. catarrhalis) is a type of bacteria that’s also known as Neisseria catarrhalis and Branhamella catarrhalis. It used to be considered a normal part of the human respiratory system, but more recent research shows that can it sometimes causes infections.

Where is Moraxella Osloensis?

Moraxella osloensis is part of normal flora in the skin, mucus membranes and respiratory tract of humans. Infection with this organism is rare, and few cases in literature were reported.

How does Moraxella catarrhalis spread?

The organism appears to spread contiguously from its colonizing position in the respiratory tract to the infection site. There is no pathognomonic feature of M. catarrhalis otitis media, acute or chronic sinusitis, or pneumonia.

What media does Moraxella catarrhalis grow on?

Moraxella catarrhalis grows well on blood agar and chocolate agar, producing small, nonhemolytic, grayish-white colonies that slide across the agar surface, like a hockey puck, when pushed with a bacteriologic loop.

Which of the following is characteristic of Moraxella catarrhalis?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans.

What is the drug of choice for bacterial meningitis?

Since then, penicillin has remained the drug of choice for the treatment of meningococcal meningitis. However, current IDSA guidelines list ceftriaxone or cefotaxime as the drugs of choice. The image below shows indications of increased intracranial pressure, an early complication of bacterial meningitis.

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What is Moraxella catarrhalis infection?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative diplococcus that commonly colonizes the upper respiratory tract. It is a leading cause of otitis media in children, acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and acute bacterial rhinosinusitis.

Is there a vaccine for Moraxella catarrhalis?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a prominent pathogen that causes acute otitis media in children and lower respiratory tract infections in adults, resulting in a significant socioeconomic burden on healthcare systems globally. No vaccine is currently available for M.catarrhalis.

When was Moraxella catarrhalis found?

Moraxella catarrhalis is a gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that was first described in 1896. The organism has also been known as Micrococcus catarrhalis, Neisseria catarrhalis, and Branhamella catarrhalis; currently, it is considered to belong to the subgenus Branhamella of the genus Moraxella.

Are streptococci Gram-positive?

Streptococci are Gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. Older cultures may lose their Gram-positive character.

What is Moraxella group?

Moraxella is a genus of gram-negative bacteria in the family Moraxellaceae. It is named after the Swiss ophthalmologist Victor Morax. The organisms are short rods, coccobacilli, or as in the case of Moraxella catarrhalis, diplococci in morphology, with asaccharolytic, oxidase-positive, and catalase-positive properties.

What is Gram cocci positive?

Gram-positive cocci include Staphylococcus (catalase-positive), which grows clusters, and Streptococcus (catalase-negative), which grows in chains. The staphylococci further subdivide into coagulase-positive (S. aureus) and coagulase-negative (S. epidermidis and S.

What are the symptoms of streptococcus pneumoniae?

Symptoms can include fever, cough, shortness of breath, chest pain, stiff neck, confusion, increased sensitivity to light, joint pain, chills, ear pain, sleeplessness, and irritability. In severe cases, pneumococcal disease can cause hearing loss, brain damage, and death.

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What is the size of Moraxella catarrhalis?

Table 1a

Moraxella catarrhalis Nonhuman primate Moraxella
Cell morphology Small (0.61.0 m) cocci Larger (1.01.5 1.52.5 m) plump rods
Colony morphology Round, convex, greyish-white, hockey puck Round, large, mucoid
Hemolysis No No
Oxidase Yes Yes

How do you treat streptococcus pneumoniae?

Pneumococcal pneumonia caused by organisms that are susceptible or intermediately resistant to penicillin responds to treatment with penicillin, one million units intravenously every 4 hours, ampicillin, 1g every 6 hours, or ceftriaxone, 1g every 24 hours. Ease of administration favors the use of ceftriaxone.

What is the shape of Moraxella catarrhalis?

(coccobacillus) Curved, straight or bean-shaped: bacilli come in many variants and are widely spread. Moraxella catarrhalis is an aerobic, Gram-negative coccobacillus previously also referred to as Neisseria catarrhalis or Micrococcus catarrhalis.

Is Moraxella catarrhalis spore forming?

Moraxella catarrhalis is also non-motile, non-spore forming, aerobic, which means it needs oxygen to survive, and oxidase positive, which means it produces an enzyme called oxidase. However, it’s maltose fermentation negative which means it cannot ferment maltose.