What are the 4 stages of a tonic-clonic seizure?

In addition to these categorizations, there are four distinct phases of seizures: prodromal, early ictal (the “aura”), ictal, and post-ictal.

What happens during a tonic-clonic seizure?

A tonic-clonic seizure usually begins on both sides of the brain, but can start in one side and spread to the whole brain. A person loses consciousness, muscles stiffen, and jerking movements are seen. These types of seizures usually last 1 to 3 minutes and take longer for a person to recover.

How many phases are in a tonic-clonic seizure?

Tonic-clonic seizures, formerly known as grand mal seizures, comprise two stages: a tonic phase and a clonic phase. These intense seizures can be frightening to experience or observe, as extreme muscle spasms may temporarily arrest breathing.

What are the three phases of a tonic-clonic seizure?

Seizures take on many different forms and have a beginning (prodrome and aura), middle (ictal) and end (post-ictal) stage. These phases are described below.

What is the period after a seizure called?

The middle of a seizure is often called the ictal phase. This correlates with the electrical seizure activity in the brain. As the seizure ends, the postictal phase occurs – this is the recovery period after the seizure.

What is the tonic phase of a seizure?

In the tonic phase the body becomes entire rigid, and in the clonic phase there is uncontrolled jerking. Tonic-clonic seizures may or may not be preceded by an aura, and are often followed by headache, confusion, and sleep. They may last mere seconds, or continue for several minutes. Also known as a grand mal seizure.

What causes a tonic-clonic seizure?

A grand mal seizure — also known as a generalized tonic-clonic seizure — is caused by abnormal electrical activity throughout the brain. Usually, a grand mal seizure is caused by epilepsy.

What do you do for a tonic-clonic seizure?

What to Do During the Seizure

  1. STAY with the person. Stay calm. …
  2. Keep the person SAFE. …
  3. Turn the person onto one SIDE with the head and mouth angled toward the ground. …
  4. Do not try to take out contact lenses. …
  5. Do not hold the person down. …
  6. Do not put any object in the person’s mouth.
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What does the clonic stage of a seizure consist of?

Clonic seizures consist of repeated jerking movements of the arms and legs, sometimes on both sides of the body. If the clonic seizure has a focal onset (starts in one part of the brain), the person may be aware during it.

How long is Postictal period?

The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 minutes and is characterized by disorienting symptoms such as confusion, drowsiness, hypertension, headache, nausea, etc.

What can I do for my Postictal period?

Most patients with postictal delirium do not require specific treatments, but simply need to be protected as their postictal confusion resolves. Patients need supportive care to avoid injuries; for example, windows should be closed and dangerous objects removed; bedrails with padding can be raised around the patient.

What is the definition of ictal?

Ictal is defined as the period of a seizure and interictal refers to the period between seizures.2. From: Therapy in Sleep Medicine, 2012.

What are the 3 types of seizures?

There are now 3 major groups of seizures.

  • Generalized onset seizures:
  • Focal onset seizures:
  • Unknown onset seizures:

What are the 4 types of seizures?

Epilepsy is a common long-term brain condition. It causes seizures, which are bursts of electricity in the brain. There are four main types of epilepsy: focal, generalized, combination focal and generalized, and unknown. A person’s seizure type determines what kind of epilepsy they have.

What are the 2 main types of seizures?

There are two major classes or groups of seizures: focal onset and generalized onset. Focal onset seizures start in one area and can spread across the brain and cause mild or severe symptoms, depending on how the electrical discharges spread.

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How long can a tonic phase of a seizure last?

How long do tonic-clonic seizures last? Most tonic-clonic seizures last between one and 3 minutes. If a tonic-clonic seizure lasts longer than 5 minutes you may need emergency medical treatment.

What can provoke a seizure?

Here are some of the seizure triggers that have been reported by people with epilepsy:

  • Not taking epilepsy medicine as prescribed.
  • Feeling tired and not sleeping well.
  • Stress.
  • Alcohol and recreational drugs.
  • Flashing or flickering lights.
  • Monthly periods.
  • Missing meals.
  • Having an illness which causes a high temperature.

Can you have a tonic-clonic seizure in your sleep?

Nocturnal seizures are seizures that happen while a person is asleep. They can cause unusual nighttime behavior, such as waking for no reason or urinating while sleeping, as well as jerking and shaking of the body. Nocturnal seizures are usually a type of seizure called a tonic-clonic seizure.

What happens during the tonic phase of a Generalised seizure?

Tonic-clonic seizures get their name from their two distinct stages. Typically, in the tonic stage of the seizure, your muscles stiffen, you lose consciousness, and you may fall down. The clonic stage consists of rapid muscle contractions, which are sometimes called convulsions.

When do tonic-clonic seizures occur?

The generalized tonic-clonic seizures begin between 5 and 40 years of age. In 8 out of 10 people, it starts in teens and young adults between the ages of 11 and 23 years old. A family history of epilepsy is common in 2 out of 10 people.

What is characteristic of generalized seizures?

Generalized seizures include absence, atonic, tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and febrile seizures. Loss of consciousness may be accompanied by spasms, stiffening, shaking, muscle contractions or loss of muscle tone.

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Can you be conscious during a tonic-clonic seizure?

It is widely accepted that total amnesia and loss of consciousness occur during generalised tonic-clonic seizures. 1 2 Indeed, retention of memory, responsiveness, and the ability to speak during generalised seizures suggest a diagnosis of pseudoseizures.

What is another name for a tonic-clonic seizure?

A tonic-clonic seizure, also called a grand mal seizure, causes violent muscle contractions and loss of consciousness. These are the types of seizures most people know about, and what they usually picture when they think about seizures in general.

What to do if a child has a tonic-clonic seizure?

What should I do when my child has a tonic-clonic seizure?

  1. Step 1: Stay calm and reassure others. …
  2. Step 2: Prevent injury. …
  3. Step 3: Be aware of the length of the seizure. …
  4. Step 4: Make your child as comfortable as possible. …
  5. Step 5: Do not put anything in your child’s mouth. …
  6. Step 6: Keep bystanders away.

What is the drug of choice for tonic-clonic seizure?

The agents used for tonic-clonic seizures include anticonvulsants such as valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, felbamate, topiramate, zonisamide, clobazam, and perampanel.

Where do tonic-clonic seizures originate?

Tonic and Clonic Seizures: Partial or Generalized A seizure that originates in both halves (hemispheres) of the brain simultaneously, causing stiffness or twitching throughout the body, is known as a generalized tonic or clonic seizure.

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