# What are the 5 assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle?

The Hardy–Weinberg principle relies on a number of assumptions: (1) random mating (i.e, population structure is absent and matings occur in proportion to genotype frequencies), (2) the absence of natural selection, (3) a very large population size (i.e., genetic drift is negligible), (4) no gene flow or migration, (5) …

## What are the 5 major mechanisms of evolution?

There are five key mechanisms that cause a population, a group of interacting organisms of a single species, to exhibit a change in allele frequency from one generation to the next. These are evolution by: mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, non-random mating, and natural selection (previously discussed here).

## What are the five conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium quizlet?

Terms in this set (5)

• No mutations. The gene pool is modified if mutations alter alleles or if entire genes are deleted or duplicated. …
• Random mating. …
• No natural selection. …
• Extremely large population size (no genetic drift) …
• No gene flow (emigration, immigration, transfer of pollen, etc)

## Which of the following conditions is required for Hardy-Weinberg genetic equilibrium?

The conditions to maintain the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are: no mutation, no gene flow, large population size, random mating, and no natural selection. … Therefore mutation, gene flow, small population, nonrandom mating, and natural selection will disrupt the equilibrium.

## What do p and q represent in Hardy-Weinberg?

The Hardy-Weinberg equation is a mathematical equation that can be used to calculate the genetic variation of a population at equilibrium. … where p is the frequency of the A allele and q is the frequency of the a allele in the population.

## Why is the Hardy-Weinberg model useful?

Importance: The Hardy-Weinberg model enables us to compare a population’s actual genetic structure over time with the genetic structure we would expect if the population were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (i.e., not evolving).

## What are the 4 steps of evolution?

There are four principles at work in evolution—variation, inheritance, selection and time.

## What are the 6 patterns of evolution?

There Are Six Important Patterns of Macroevolution:

• Mass Extinctions.
• Convergent Evolution.
• Coevolution.
• Punctuated Equilibrium.
• Developmental Gene Changes.

## Are humans still evolving?

They put pressure on us to adapt in order to survive the environment we are in and reproduce. It is selection pressure that drives natural selection (‘survival of the fittest’) and it is how we evolved into the species we are today. … Genetic studies have demonstrated that humans are still evolving.

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## Which condition is not required for a population to be at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium quizlet?

Terms in this set (10) very large population (genetic drift doesn’t occur), no emigration or immigration, no mutations, random mating, no natural selection.

## What conditions are needed for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium quizlet?

Terms in this set (5)

• The population is very large.
• The population is isolated (no migration of individuals, or alleles, into or out of the population).
• Mutations do not later the gene pool.
• Mating is random.
• All individuals are equal in reproductive success (no natural selection).

## What is one condition that must be met for a population to be in genetic equilibrium quizlet?

What is one condition that must be met for a population to be in genetic equilibrium? There is no genetic drift. A population has a small size, high level of genetic drift, and very little migration into the population. What will most likely happen to the genetic diversity in the population over time?

## What are the factors affecting Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

– Five factors are known to influence the equilibrium of Hardy-Weinberg. These include gene migration or gene flow, genetic drift, mutation, genetic recombination and natural selection.

## Are humans in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?

When a population meets all the Hardy-Weinberg conditions, it is said to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Human populations do not meet all the conditions of HWE exactly, and their allele frequencies will change from one generation to the next, so the population evolves.

## How do you explain natural selection?

Natural selection is the process through which populations of living organisms adapt and change. Individuals in a population are naturally variable, meaning that they are all different in some ways. This variation means that some individuals have traits better suited to the environment than others.

## Why is the 2 in the term 2pq necessary?

Transcribed image text: In the formula for determining a population’s genotype frequencies, the pq in the term 2pq is necessary because the population is diploid. heterozygotes can come about in two ways. the population is doubling in number. heterozygotes have two alleles.

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## What does the 2 mean in 2pq?

In the equation, p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype AA, q2 represents the frequency of the homozygous genotype aa, and 2pq represents the frequency of the heterozygous genotype Aa.

## Is P or Q recessive?

In the simplest system, with two alleles of the same locus (e.g. A,a), we use the symbol p to represent the frequency of the dominant allele within the population, and q for the frequency of the recessive allele.

## How does genetic drift violate Hardy-Weinberg?

In a relatively small population, a condition that violates the first Hardy-Weinberg assumption, it is possible for allele frequencies to have resulted from chance. This new small gene pool may have the same allele frequency as the original, but it is also possible, even likely, that it does not. …

## Is PP genotype or phenotype?

There are three available genotypes, PP (homozygous dominant ), Pp (heterozygous), and pp (homozygous recessive). All three have different genotypes but the first two have the same phenotype (purple) as distinct from the third (white).

## What do PQ p2 2pq and q2 represent?

p2 +2pq + q2 = 1 Where p2 represents the frequency of the homozygous dominant genotype, q2 represents the frequency of the recessive genotype and 2pq is the frequency of the heterozygous genotype.

## What are the 4 factors of natural selection?

Darwin’s process of natural selection has four components.

• Variation. Organisms (within populations) exhibit individual variation in appearance and behavior. …
• Inheritance. Some traits are consistently passed on from parent to offspring. …
• High rate of population growth. …
• Differential survival and reproduction.

## What are Darwin’s 5 points of natural selection?

In fact, it is so simple that it can be broken down into five basic steps, abbreviated here as VISTA: Variation, Inheritance, Selection, Time and Adaptation.

## What were Darwin’s 3 main observations?

Darwin’s important observations included the diversity of living things, the remains of ancient organisms, and the characteristics of organisms on the Galápagos Islands.

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## What are the 5 types of evidence of evolution?

Five types of evidence for evolution are discussed in this section: ancient organism remains, fossil layers, similarities among organisms alive today, similarities in DNA, and similarities of embryos.

## What are 3 types of evolution?

Evolution over time can follow several different patterns. Factors such as environment and predation pressures can have different effects on the ways in which species exposed to them evolve. shows the three main types of evolution: divergent, convergent, and parallel evolution.

## What are the 5 evidence of evolution?

There are five lines of evidence that support evolution: the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, and molecular biology.

## Can humans evolve to breathe underwater?

Scientists have discovered a way for humans to potentially breathe underwater by merging our DNA with that of algae. … The real-life version however could work on a more fundamental level and change our DNA so that we are more like algae, which actually give off oxygen even though they are on the sea bed.

## Who was the first human on earth?

Homo habilis The First Humans One of the earliest known humans is Homo habilis, or “handy man,” who lived about 2.4 million to 1.4 million years ago in Eastern and Southern Africa.

## Are humans the smartest animal?

Strictly speaking, humans are the smartest animals on Earth—at least according to human standards. … Measuring the intelligence of animals can be difficult because there are so many indicators, including the ability to learn new things, the ability to solve puzzles, the use of tools, and self-awareness.

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