What are the causes of filaria?

Most cases of filariasis are caused by the parasite known as Wuchereria bancrofti. Culex, Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes serve as vector for W. bancrofti in transmission of the disease. Another parasite called Brugia malayi also causes filariasis is transmitted by the vector Mansonia and Anopheles mosquitoes.

Can filaria be cured?

Since there is no known vaccine or cure for lymphatic filariasis, the most effective method that exists to control the disease is prevention.

How do I get filarial worms?

Filarial worm infections are transmitted as follows:

  1. An infected fly (such as a horsefly or deerfly) or mosquito bites a person and deposits larvae of the worm in the skin.
  2. The larvae mature into adult worms under the skin or in lymph tissues.

Which is the filarial worm?

Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that dwell within the lymphatics and the subcutaneous tissues of up to 170 million people worldwide. Among the eight filarial infections of humans, those that cause loiasis, onchocerciasis, and lymphatic filariasis are important causes of morbidity.

How is filariasis detected?

The standard method for diagnosing active infection is the identification of microfilariae in a blood smear by microscopic examination. The microfilariae that cause lymphatic filariasis circulate in the blood at night (called nocturnal periodicity).

How do you treat microfilaria?

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) is the drug of choice in the United States. The drug kills the microfilariae and some of the adult worms.

What foods to avoid if you have filaria?

Light diet consisting of older jowar, wheat, horse gram, green gram, drum stick, bitter gourd, radish, garlic and older red rice is beneficial. Milk and products, fish, jaggery, sweets and contaminated water must be avoided.

How does filariasis start?

The disease spreads from person to person by mosquito bites. When a mosquito bites a person who has lymphatic filariasis, microscopic worms circulating in the person’s blood enter and infect the mosquito.

What are the signs and symptoms of filariasis?

Symptoms may include itchy skin (pruritis), abdominal pain, chest pain, muscle pain (myalgias), and/or areas of swelling under the skin. Other symptoms may include an abnormally enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), and inflammation in the affected organs.

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Is filariasis same as elephantiasis?

Elephantiasis is also known as lymphatic filariasis. It’s caused by parasitic worms, and can spread from person to person through mosquitoes. Elephantiasis causes swelling of the scrotum, legs, or breasts. Elephantiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease (NTD).

Is there any cure for elephantiasis?

There are medicines to treat elephantiasis. Your doctor may give you one called diethylcarbamazine (DEC). You’ll take it once a year. It will kill the microscopic worms in your bloodstream.

What are the signs of elephantiasis?

The main symptom of elephantiasis is gross enlargement and swelling of an area of the body because of the accumulation of fluid. The arms and legs are the areas most often affected. An entire arm or leg may swell to several times its normal size resembling the thick, round appearance of an elephant’s leg.

What is Microfilariasis?

Microfilaria is the term used to refer to the larva of a certain parasitic nematode, i.e., filariae when it is still in an early larval stage. These parasites are released into the bloodstream of the host by the adult parasites. And hence, these embryonic larvae are usually found in the blood of an infected person.

What is the other name for elephantiasis?

Lymphatic filariasis, commonly known as elephantiasis, is a neglected tropical disease. Infection occurs when filarial parasites are transmitted to humans through mosquitoes.

Which is the most common site of filariasis disease?

Filariasis

  • Filariasis is a parasitic disease caused by an infection with roundworms of the Filarioidea type. …
  • These parasites exist in the wild in subtropical parts of southern Asia, Africa, the South Pacific, and parts of South America. …
  • Eight known filarial worms have humans as a definitive host.

What is the natural cure for filaria?

Natural remedies like Scarlet Leadwort and Ajwain were providing clues for developing drugs with the capacity to kill adult filarial worms, said Nisha Mathew, a scientist of the Vector Control Research Centre (VCRC), Pondicherry (Puducherry), which is an institute of the Indian Council of Medical Research, on Thursday.

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Is microfilaria a parasite?

The microfilaria (plural microfilariae, sometimes abbreviated mf) is an early stage in the life cycle of certain parasitic nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. In these species, the adults live in a tissue or the circulatory system of vertebrates (the definitive hosts).

What are the symptoms of microfilaria?

Signs and symptoms

  • Fever.
  • Inguinal or axillary lymphadenopathy.
  • Testicular and/or inguinal pain.
  • Skin exfoliation.
  • Limb or genital swelling – Repeated episodes of inflammation and lymphedema lead to lymphatic damage, chronic swelling, and elephantiasis of the legs, arms, scrotum, vulva, and breasts.

How long do microfilariae live?

Microfilariae persisted in 1-ml blood samples for 60, 62, 91, and 101 weeks following removal of adult worms. The results indicate clearly that in a naturally produced population, in a natural definitive host, microfilariae survive for 60 to 100 weeks.

What are the drugs of choice in the treatment of filarial parasites?

Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC), which is both microfilaricidal and active against the adult worm, is the drug of choice for lymphatic filariasis.

Which doctor will treat filaria?

However, do remember to only use elephantiasis medicines as prescribed and directed by a general physician. In severe lymphatic filariasis cases, the doctor may recommend reconstructive surgery for the infected areas, or removal of affected lymphatic tissues.

Does filariasis cause itching?

The skin becomes very itchy and a red spotty rash is often present. Scratching often leads to bleeding, ulcers and secondary infections. The lower trunk, pelvis, buttocks, thighs and legs appear to be the most affected. Microfilariae are the main cause of this dermatitis.

What are the complications of filariasis?

Common complications of filariasis include chronic lymphedema, hydrocele, skin pigmentation, and renal impairment like chyluria. Prognosis is generally good in early cases, but in chronic cases the disease can leave an individual severely disabled with genital damage.

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How can filariasis be prevented?

Prevention & Control

  1. At night. Sleep in an air-conditioned room or. Sleep under a mosquito net.
  2. Between dusk and dawn. Wear long sleeves and trousers and. Use mosquito repellent on exposed skin.

Does microfilaria cause itching?

In the human body, the adult worms produce embryonic larvae (microfilariae) that migrate to the skin, eyes and other organs. The worms can cause severe itching, disfiguring skin conditions, and blindness or impaired vision.

Can microfilaria be transmitted?

The infection spreads from person to person by mosquito bites. The adult worm lives in the human lymph vessels, mates, and produces millions of microscopic worms, also known as microfilariae. Microfilariae circulate in the person’s blood and infect the mosquito when it bites a person who is infected.

Can filaria cause infertility?

Filariasis is accepted as the most common infectious cause of disability. Of several problems, reproductive disturbance and induction of infertility can be seen. Generally, the well-known situation is the filarial orchitis.

How long does lymphatic filariasis last?

The worms can live an average of six to eight years and throughout their life produce millions of small larvae (microfilariae) that circulate in the blood. When lymphatic filariasis becomes chronic, it causes lymphedema or elephantiasis (swelling of the skin and other tissues) of limbs and hydrocele.