The hypoglossal nuclei, exist as paired nuclei within the medulla oblongata that provide motor innervation to the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue (excluding palatoglossus) via the hypoglossal nerve. What is the function of the hypoglossal nerve?
The hypoglossal nerve enables tongue movement. It controls the hyoglossus, intrinsic, genioglossus and styloglossus muscles. These muscles help you speak, swallow and move substances around in your mouth.

Where is the hypoglossal located?

The hypoglossal nerve leaves the skull through the hypoglossal canal, which is situated near the large opening for the spinal cord, the foramen magnum. After leaving the skull, the hypoglossal nerve spirals around the vagus nerve and then passes behind the deep belly of the digastric muscle. Where is Abducens nucleus?
rhombomere 5 The abducens nucleus is a motor nucleus situated in rhombomere 5. It supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. The main part of the nucleus is located ventral to the genu of the facial nerve, immediately lateral to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (Fig. 16.5).

What is the function of abducens nerve?

Cranial nerve six (CN VI), also known as the abducens nerve, is one of the nerves responsible for the extraocular motor functions of the eye, along with the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and the trochlear nerve (CN IV). Is hypoglossal sensory or motor?

Nerves in Order Modality
Glossopharyngeal Branchial Motor Visceral Motor Visceral Sensory General Sensory Special Sensory
Vagus Branchial Motor Visceral Motor Visceral Sensory Special Sensory
Spinal Accessory Branchial Motor
Hypoglossal Somatic Motor

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the normal function of the hypoglossal nerve XII?

Each hypoglossal nerve exits the cranium and curves, reaching the skeletal tongue muscles. It provides voluntary motor control of tongue movements. Normal function of CN XII is verified by having a patient stick out the tongue. If there is damage to these nerves, the tongue will move toward the side of the lesion.

What does hypoglossal mean in medical terms?

Nerve, hypoglossal: The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. … The hypoglossal nerve supplies the muscles of the tongue. (The Greek hypo-, under and -glossal from Aglossa, the tongue = under the tongue).

Is the Abducens nerve sensory or motor?

The abducens nerve is a purely somatic motor nerve, It has no sensory function. It innervates the lateral rectus muscle, an extraocular muscles of the eye, which is responsible for the abduction of the eyes on the same (ipsilateral) side.

Is hypoglossal nerve a mixed nerve?

CN XII, Hypoglossal, innervates the muscles of the throat and enables us to swallow. Five cranial nerves have mixed sensory, motor and parasympathetic function.

What is the hypoglossal canal?

What is the third nerve?

oculomotor nerve The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CN III). It allows movement of the eye muscles, constriction of the pupil, focusing the eyes and the position of the upper eyelid. Cranial nerve III works with other cranial nerves to control eye movements and support sensory functioning.

What part of brain controls tongue?

There is an area in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere called Broca’s area. It is next to the region that controls the movement of facial muscles, tongue, jaw and throat.

Does hypoglossal nerve cross?

The hypoglossal nerve descends vertically through the retrostyloid space. At first, it is positioned medial to the internal carotid artery, but after that it crosses the artery and positions itself laterally to it. The hypoglossal nerve holds this relation until it reaches the beginning of the occipital artery.

What does Abducens nucleus do?

The abducens nucleus is the center for conjugate horizontal movements of the eye. About 70% of the abducens nucleus are motor neurons that control the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle.

What part of the brain controls Abducens?

The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve (VI) emerges—a cranial nerve nucleus. This nucleus is located beneath the fourth ventricle in the caudal portion of the pons, medial to the sulcus limitans. …

Abducens nucleus
TA2 5941
FMA 54504
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

What is Edinger Westphal nucleus?

The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is a small parasympathetic motor nucleus in the midbrain and one of the two nuclei for the oculomotor nerve. It is one of the cranial nerve nuclei.

What happens when abducens nerve is damaged?

Sixth nerve palsy occurs when the sixth cranial nerve is damaged or doesn’t work right. It’s also known as the abducens nerve. This condition causes problems with eye movement. The sixth cranial nerve sends signals to your lateral rectus muscle.

Why is the abducens nerve important?

The abducens nerve, sometimes called the abducent nerve, is responsible for the movement of the lateral rectus muscle, which allows your eye to rotate away from the center of your body and look to the left or right.

What is the function of the Abducens and Trochlear?

The trochlear (CN IV) and abducens (CN VI) nerves are derivatives of the somatic efferent column of the basal plates of the brainstem. As such, they are pure motor nerves that are responsible for carrying general somatic efferent impulses to their end target organs.

What is the nucleus Ambiguus made of?

The nucleus ambiguus is a group of large motor neurons, situated deep in the medullary reticular formation. The nucleus ambiguus contains the cell bodies of nerves that innervate the muscles of the soft palate, pharynx, and larynx which are strongly associated with speech and swallowing.

What is the main function of CN I?

CNs have sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) functions. CN I and CN II convey sensory information. … All the other CNs originate from the brainstem nuclei (the hypoglossal nerve is located at the border of the spinal cord) and include sensory axons as well as motor axons.

Which is the 8th cranial nerve?

The vestibulocochlear nerve, also known as cranial nerve eight (CN VIII), consists of the vestibular and cochlear nerves. … The vestibular nerve is primarily responsible for maintaining body balance and eye movements, while the cochlear nerve is responsible for hearing.

What nerve controls sense of smell?

The olfactory nerve is the first cranial nerve (CN I). It is a sensory nerve that functions for the sense of smell. Olfaction is phylogenetically referred to as the oldest of the senses. It is carried out through special visceral afferent nerve.

How does damage to the hypoglossal nerve cause speech impairment?

Examination. Damage to the hypoglossal nerve causes paralysis of the tongue. Usually, one side of the tongue is affected, and when the person sticks out his or her tongue, it deviates or points toward the side that is damaged.

How do you assess the hypoglossal nerve?

The 12th (hypoglossal) cranial nerve is evaluated by asking the patient to extend the tongue and inspecting it for atrophy, fasciculations, and weakness (deviation is toward the side of a lesion).

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