Vertebrae are the 33 individual, interlocking bones that form the spinal column. Each vertebra has three main functional components: the vertebral body for load-bearing, the vertebral arch to protect the spinal cord, and transverse processes for ligament attachment.

What is thoracic vertebra?

Thoracic vertebrae are the twelve vertebral segments (T1-T12) that make up the thoracic spine. These structures have very little motion because they are firmly attached to the ribs and sternum (breastbone).

What is foramen Transversarium?

Foramen transversarium (FT) is a distinguishing characteristic of cervical vertebrae based on the vertebral vessels and sympathetic nerve it transmits.

What is typical vertebra?

A typical vertebra consists of a body and a vertebral arch. The arch is formed by the paired pedicles and paired laminae. Arising from the vertebral arch are the transverse, spinous, superior articular, and inferior articular processes. The vertebral foramen provides for passage of the spinal cord.

What is the vertebrae function?

The vertebrae protect and support the spinal cord. They also bear the majority of the weight put upon your spine. The body of each vertebra is the large, round portion of bone.

What is vertebrae bone?

Vertebrae. Vertebrae are the 33 individual bones that interlock with each other to form the spinal column. The vertebrae are numbered and divided into regions: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx (Fig. 2). … The first vertebra (C1) is the ring-shaped atlas that connects directly to the skull.

What is a thoracic?

The thoracic spine is the longest region of the spine, and by some measures it is also the most complex. Connecting with the cervical spine above and the lumbar spine below, the thoracic spine runs from the base of the neck down to the abdomen. It is the only spinal region attached to the rib cage.

Where is the 11th thoracic vertebra?

The eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11) is located near the bottom of the thoracic spine. Generally, the spinal bones are larger and heavier the further down they are located. This helps each vertebra to support the weight of the vertebrae above it, as well as the weight of the skull and brain.

Where is T7 located?

The T7 vertebra is the seventh thoracic vertebra, found in the middle of the chest between the seventh and eighth pairs of ribs. It plays important roles in the support of the spinal cord, ribcage, and muscles of the chest.

What is atlas and Axis?

The atlas and axis vertebrae are the two most superior bones in the vertebral column, and they are part of the seven cervical vertebrae. The atlas is the top-most bone, sitting just below the skull; it is followed by the axis. Together, they support the skull, facilitate neck movement, and protect the spinal cord.

What is Odontoid Peg?

The odontoid process (also dens or odontoid peg) is a protuberance (process or projection) of the Axis (second cervical vertebra). It exhibits a slight constriction or neck, where it joins the main body of the vertebra.

Where do spinal nerves exit?

The spinal nerves leave the vertebral column through the intervertebral foraminae. Some spinal nerves are intermingled in plexuses, from which the peripheral nerves are formed, each nerve containing fibers from several spinal cord segments.

What is Atlas vertebra?

Atlas The atlas is the first cervical vertebra and articulates with the occiput of the head and the axis (C2). Has no vertebral body and no spinous process. Has lateral masses which are connected by an anterior and posterior arch.

How high is a vertebra?

… height gradually increased to a maximum value at T12 level with the mean of 22.21 mm for whole series, 22.30 mm for male vertebrae and 21.83 mm for female vertebrae.

How big is a vertebra?

Usually there are 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 4 caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae. In humans, the length of the vertebral column is 71 cm in males and 61 cm in females.

What is a spinal vertebrae?

Vertebrae: The spine has 33 stacked vertebrae (small bones) that form the spinal canal. The spinal canal is a tunnel that houses the spinal cord and nerves, protecting them from injury. Most vertebrae move to allow for a range of motion. The lowest vertebrae (sacrum and coccyx) are fused together and don’t move.

Is lumbar spondylosis arthritis?

Technically, spondylosis is a form of arthritis—spinal osteoarthritis (osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis) to be exact. We tend to think of arthritis as something you get in your hands and knees, but the spine, and all of its bones and joints, can fall victim to its grip as well.

Where is your vertebrae?

The vertebrae are the bony building blocks of the spine. There are seven cervical vertebrae in the neck, twelve thoracic vertebrae in the upper back, and five lumbar vertebrae in the lower back.

How many vertebrae do humans have?

The average person is born with 33 individual bones (the vertebrae) that interact and connect with each other through flexible joints called facets. By the time a person becomes an adult most have only 24 vertebrae because some vertebrae at the bottom end of the spine fuse together during normal growth and development.

What are the 26 vertebrae?

The spine, also known as the vertebral column or spinal column, is a column of 26 bones in an adult body — 24 separate vertebrae interspaced with cartilage, and then additionally the sacrum and coccyx.

How many coccyx vertebrae are there?

The human vertebral column consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 3 to 5 coccygeal vertebrae.

Who is thoracic surgeon?

Thoracic surgery Specialized thoracic surgeons treat lung and esophageal cancer, while specialized cardiac surgeons treat the heart. Thoracic surgery, also known as chest surgery, may be used to diagnose or repair lungs affected by cancer, trauma or pulmonary disease.

What is a lung surgeon called?

A cardiothoracic surgeon is a medical doctor who specializes in surgical procedures of the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest. This includes surgeons who can be called cardiac surgeons, cardiovascular surgeons, general thoracic surgeons, and congenital heart surgeons.

What is the difference between a cardiac surgeon and a thoracic surgeon?

Thoracic surgeons mainly treat lung cancer, lung disease, and diseases in the esophagus and chest wall. Cardiothoracic surgeons, by contrast, operate on more diseases in organs in the chest and in the chest cavity.

What does T11 nerve control?

T-1 through T-5 nerves affect muscles, upper chest, mid-back and abdominal muscles. These nerves and muscles help control the rib cage, lungs, diaphragm and muscles that help you breathe. T-6 through T-12 nerves affect abdominal and back muscles.

What is T11 and T12?

The thoracic spine has 12 nerve roots (T1 to T12) on each side of the spine that branch from the spinal cord and control motor and sensory signals mostly for the upper back, chest, and abdomen. The thoracic spine (highlighted) spans the upper and mid-back. It includes twelve vertebrae named T1 through T12.

What is T11 vertebral body?

The eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11) is one of the last thoracic spinal vertebrae. It’s the first of the transitional vertebra that is not attached to a true rib, meaning a rib bone that connects to the chest’s sternum.

What part of the spine can paralyze you?

A person with a complete C4 level of injury is paralyzed from the shoulders down. A person with a complete T12 level of injury is paralyzed from the waist down.

How serious is a spinal compression fracture?

What are possible complications of a compression fracture? Complications of compression fractures include: Fractured bones that do not heal after treatment, which can lead to damage of the nearby vertebrae. Blood clots in the legs due to decreased mobility.

Where is the T9 in your back?

thoracic vertebra Your T9 vertebra is the ninth thoracic vertebra, meaning that it’s part of the region of your spine that’s aligned with your chest and connect to your rib cage. These vertebrae, 12 in total, support your ribs and upper body, and protect some of the most important nerves in your body.