Human T- cell leukemia virus , type 1 (HTLV-1) occurs when a person is infected by the human T-cell leukemia retrovirus . HTLV-1 is spread by blood transfusions, sexual contact and sharing needles. It can also be spread from mother to child during birth or breast-feeding. What are the signs and symptoms of HTLV?
Initial symptoms are subtle and include gait problems, unexplained falls, low back pain, constipation, urinary urgency/incontinence and numbness or pain in the lower limbs. Over the years, progressive leg weakness ensues followed by the exacerbation of the urinary and sensory symptoms.
What does a positive HTLV test mean?
The high prevalence of HTLV-II among injecting drug users is likely due to sharing blood-contaminated needles or other injection paraphernalia (62). HTLV-II infection has not been clearly associated with any diseases. Should I be worried about HTLV?
Although a few individuals have severe symptoms, most patients remain asymptomatic throughout their lives and their infections may be unknown to many health professionals. HTLV-1 can be considered a neglected public health problem and there are not many studies specifically on patients’ needs and emotional experiences.
How contagious is HTLV?
Several studies have reported transmission rates of up to 63% from transfusions of blood from a donor with HTLV-1. One study reported transmission rate of 87% from tissue transplants from positive donors. Who is at risk for HTLV?
The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in a sample of MHD patients was similar to that of other viral infections, such as hepatitis B and C. Our data revealed that MHD patients who are older, unmarried or who have received blood transfusions are at higher risk for HTLV-1 infection.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)
Is HTLV asymptomatic?
Most HTLV-I infected individuals remain lifelong asymptomatic carriers, while 2-5% may develop adult T-cell leukemia/ATL and 0.25-3.8% may develop HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) 4 .
How common is HTLV in us?
In the USA, it is estimates that approximately 266,000 individuals are infected with HTLV-1 or -2, and that 3,600 people with HAM/TSP remain undiagnosed.
What country is HTLV-1 found?
HTLV-1 is present throughout the world, with clusters of high endemicity located often nearby areas where the virus is nearly absent. The main HTLV-1 highly endemic regions are the Southwestern part of Japan, sub-Saharan Africa and South America, the Caribbean area, and foci in Middle East and Australo-Melanesia.
Who should be tested for HTLV?
This test is recommended for any individual who has multiple sexual partners; especially those from HTLV prevalent areas such as SW Japan, the Caribbean, and parts of Africa, is an IV drug user, has shared needles, or has had a blood transfusion. Antibodies to HTLV may take up to 3 months to be present in the body.
Does HTLV show up in blood work?
How accurate is HTLV blood test?
All screening tests demonstrated 100% sensitivity. Concerning the HTLV-negative samples, the SYM Solution and Gold ELISA kits had specificity values of >99.5%, while the Architect rHTLV-1/2 test presented 98.1% specificity, followed by Murex, which had a specificity of 92.0%.
How common is HTLV in Canada?
About 10 to 20 million people are infected worldwide. It is rare in Canada, but cases have been found in British Columbia and Nunavut.
What is the difference between HTLV-1 and 2?
HTLV-1 is the causal agent of adult T-cell leukemia and a progressive neurological disorder called HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (12, 34, 54). In contrast, HTLV-2 is essentially nonpathogenic, although a few cases of neurological disease in HTLV-2-infected individuals have been reported.
Does T virus exist?
This is why there are currently no viruses that affect humans, plants, fungi, and animals all at the same time. The Progenitor Virus couldn’t exist today as a plant virus that spreads to humans.
Is HTLV genetic?
Human T cell leukemia virus (HTLV-1) is an oncoretrovirus that infects at least 10 million people worldwide. HTLV-1 exhibits a remarkable genetic stability, however, viral strains have been classified in several genotypes and subgroups, which often mirror the geographic origin of the viral strain.
Does HTLV cause rash?
Infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 is a rare and severe chronic disease characterized by recurrent chronic eczema (with erythematous, scaly and crusted lesions) mainly affecting seborrheic areas (e.g. scalp, forehead, eyelids, paranasal and periauricular skin, neck, axillae, and groin), a generalized fine …
How can HTLV-1 be prevented?
In addition, screening of blood donor candidates has been shown to be effective in preventing HTLV-1 transmission. Recommendations to prevent sexual-transmission should be emphasized, including condom use and adopting safe sexual behavior. The development of an effective and safe vaccine should be emphasized.
Graduated from ENSAT (national agronomic school of Toulouse) in plant sciences in 2018, I pursued a CIFRE doctorate under contract with Sun’Agri and INRAE in Avignon between 2019 and 2022. My thesis aimed to study dynamic agrivoltaic systems, in my case in arboriculture. I love to write and share science related Stuff Here on my Website. I am currently continuing at Sun’Agri as an R&D engineer.