Iodine Deficiency and Iodine Excess Hypothyroidism can be caused by iodine deficiency (see Chapter 88) or iodine excess. Inorganic iodide in excess of daily doses of 500 to 1000 mcg inhibits organification of iodide, known as the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. What is iodine induced hyperthyroidism?
Iodine induced hyperthyroidism is frequently observed in patients affected by euthyroid iodine deficient goiter when suddenly exposed to excess iodine. Possibly the presence of autonomous thyroid function permits the synthesis and release of excess quantities of thyroid hormones.
What is thyroid escape phenomenon?
Escape phenomenon is believed to occur because of decreased inorganic iodine concentration inside the thyroid follicle below a critical threshold secondary to down-regulation of sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) on the basolateral membrane of the thyroid follicular cell. What is Wolff-Chaikoff phenomenon?
Wolff-Chaikoff effect is an autoregulatory phenomenon, whereby a large amount of ingested iodine acutely inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis within the follicular cells, irrespective of the serum level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 1.
In which class of the compounds are used in the treatment of Jod-Basedow phenomenon?
The Jod-Basedow effect (also Jod-Basedow syndrome and Jod-Basedow phenomenon) is hyperthyroidism following administration of iodine or iodide, either as a dietary supplement, iodinated contrast medical imaging, or as a medication (mainly Amiodarone). How does iodine affect hyperthyroidism?
Too much iodine can make hyperthyroidism worse by leading the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone. A person with hyperthyroidism should avoid eating excessive amounts of iodine-rich foods, such as: iodized salt.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)
Can hyperthyroidism be caused by iodine deficiency?
In adults, mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency increases the incidence of hyperthyroidism due to toxic goiter34).
How is iodine related to hyperthyroidism?
It causes stored thyroid hormone to leak out of your thyroid gland. Too much iodine. Iodine is found in some medicines, cough syrups, seaweed and seaweed-based supplements. Taking too much of them can cause your thyroid to make too much thyroid hormone.
How is Hashitoxicosis diagnosed?
The healthcare provider might order tests such as thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), T4, T3, and an antibody test. If an antibody test is positive, this may indicate that your immune system is attacking your thyroid gland.
What autoimmune diseases cause hyperthyroidism?
What is Graves’ disease? Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid. With this disease, your immune system attacks the thyroid and causes it to make more thyroid hormone than your body needs.
What are the symptoms of hyper thyroid problems in females?
What is aldosterone escape phenomenon?
The term “aldosterone escape” has been used to refer to 2 distinct phenomena that are exactly opposite each other: (1) escape from the sodium-retaining effects of excess mineralocorticoids or aldosterone in primary hyperaldosteronism,[1–3] which is a manifestation of volume and/or pressure natriuresis, and (2) the …
What is Riedel thyroiditis?
Riedel fibrosing thyroiditis is a rare disease characterized by chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the thyroid gland. It is also known as Riedel struma, ligneous struma, or chronic invasive fibrous thyroiditis.  Classically, it presents as hypothyroidism with a stone-like, hard-as-wood non-tender thyroid gland.
How does propylthiouracil PTU inhibit thyroid synthesis?
Propylthiouracil inhibits the production of new thyroid hormone in the thyroid gland.  It acts by inhibiting the enzyme thyroid peroxidase, which usually converts iodide to an iodine molecule and incorporates the iodine molecule into amino acid tyrosine.
What is Pretibial myxedema?
Pretibial myxedema or localized myxedema or thyroid dermopathy is an autoimmune manifestation of Graves’ disease. It also occasionally occurs in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. Lesions of thyroid dermopathy are usually asymptomatic and have only cosmetic importance.
What is Refetoff syndrome?
Description. Refetoff Syndrome: Thyroid hormone resistance is a rare syndrome in which thyroid hormone levels are elevated but the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is not suppressed (or not completely suppressed as would be expected).
What is Organification thyroid hormone?
Organification is a biochemical process that takes place in thyroid gland. It is the incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin for the production of thyroid hormone, a step done after the oxidation of iodide by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase (TPO).
What does methimazole do to the body?
Methimazole prevents the thyroid gland from producing too much thyroid hormone. Methimazole is used to treat hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). It is also used before thyroid surgery or radioactive iodine treatment.
Does Graves disease cause clubbing?
Thyroid acropachy is rare and occurs in less than 1% of patients with Graves’ disease. Thyroid acropachy consists of clubbing of the digits, swelling of the hands and feet, and periosteal proliferation of the distal long bones.
What does amiodarone do to thyroid?
Amiodarone can lead to inhibition of T4 and T3 entry into the peripheral tissues. Both amiodarone and its principle metabolite may have direct cytotoxic effects on the thyroid follicular cells, leading to a destructive thyroiditis [Bogazzi et al.
Is iodine necessary for thyroid function?
Iodine is an element that plays an essential role in the functioning of a healthy thyroid. It is used for the production of thyroid hormones.
Which disease is caused by deficiency of iodine?
Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of goiter in the world. The goiter initially is diffuse, but it eventually becomes nodular. Some nodules may become autonomous and secrete thyroid hormone regardless of the TSH level.
What is the role of iodine in thyroid hormone synthesis?
Adequate levels of iodine are required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone, which is required for various metabolic processes. The iodide cycle consists of iodine uptake and efflux from the thyrocytes to produce the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
What can hyperthyroidism cause?
Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) occurs when your thyroid gland produces too much of the hormone thyroxine. Hyperthyroidism can accelerate your body’s metabolism, causing unintentional weight loss and a rapid or irregular heartbeat.
What is the main function of iodine in the body?
Iodine is a mineral found in some foods. The body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones. These hormones control the body’s metabolism and many other important functions. The body also needs thyroid hormones for proper bone and brain development during pregnancy and infancy.
What is the relationship between iodine and thyroid function?
The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine. These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4.
Can excess iodine cause subclinical hyperthyroidism?
Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction may be subclinical or overt. Recognition of the association between iodine excess and iodine-induced hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is important in the differential diagnosis of patients who present without a known cause of thyroid dysfunction.
Graduated from ENSAT (national agronomic school of Toulouse) in plant sciences in 2018, I pursued a CIFRE doctorate under contract with Sun’Agri and INRAE in Avignon between 2019 and 2022. My thesis aimed to study dynamic agrivoltaic systems, in my case in arboriculture. I love to write and share science related Stuff Here on my Website. I am currently continuing at Sun’Agri as an R&D engineer.