What does Corynebacterium Diphtheriae cause?

Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make toxin (poison). It can lead to difficulty breathing, heart failure, paralysis, and even death. CDC recommends vaccines for infants, children, teens, and adults to prevent diphtheria.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Gram positive or negative?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a Gram-positive nonmotile, club-shaped bacillus. Strains growing in tissue, or older cultures in vitro, contain thin spots in their cell walls that allow decolorization during the Gram stain and result in a Gram-variable reaction.

What are the symptoms of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?


  • A thick, gray membrane covering your throat and tonsils.
  • A sore throat and hoarseness.
  • Swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes) in your neck.
  • Difficulty breathing or rapid breathing.
  • Nasal discharge.
  • Fever and chills.
  • Tiredness.

Where can Corynebacterium Diphtheriae be found?

diphtheriae are the nose, tonsils, and throat.

What kills Corynebacterium?

The goal is both to kill the organism and to terminate toxin production. Many antibiotics are effective, including penicillin, erythromycin, clindamycin, rifampin, and tetracycline; erythromycin or penicillin is the treatment of choice and is usually given for 14 days.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae normal flora?

Some Corynebacteria are part of the normal flora of humans, finding a suitable niche in virtually every anatomic site, especially the skin and nares. The best known and most widely studied species is Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causal agent of the disease diphtheria.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae oxidase positive?

All species are oxidase negative except for Corynebacterium bovis, Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Corynebacterium doosanense, and Corynebacterium maris (below). Many species are facultatively anaerobic and some are aerobic. Chemoorganotrophs. Some species are lipophilic.

Does Corynebacterium Diphtheriae grow on MacConkey Agar?

To diagnose the Corynebacterium species, samples include pus, exudate, affected tissues and urine. The presence of coryneform organisms in smears is diagnostic. Culture on blood agar, selective blood agar and MacConkey agar are also diagnostic, they do not grow on MacConkey.

Do all strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae causes diphtheria?

In addition to C. diphtheriae, two other corynebacteria species can produce diphtheria toxin and thus also cause diphtheria: C. ulcerans and very rarely C. pseudotuberculosis.

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Is tetanus shot a live vaccine?

Tetanus Vaccine Ingredients The vaccines are made up of tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis toxins that have been made nontoxic but they still have the ability to create an immune response. These vaccines do not contain live bacteria.

Why does tetanus make you stiff?

Tetanus is an infection caused by bacteria called Clostridium tetani. When the bacteria invade the body, they produce a poison (toxin) that causes painful muscle contractions. Another name for tetanus is lockjaw. It often causes a person’s neck and jaw muscles to lock, making it hard to open the mouth or swallow.

How common is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

It is not common in the U.S. because living conditions have improved, and children are routinely given DPT vaccine (diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus). In the past, a large number of people died from diphtheria in the US. In other countries where vaccinations are not given, the disease still exists.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae aerobic or anaerobic?

Corynebacterium diphtheriae C. diphtheriae is an aerobic, gram-positive bacillus.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae acid fast?

Corynebacterium spp., members of the family Corynebacteriaceae, are Gram-positive, non-spore- forming, non-motile, aerobic, pleomorphic rods with coccoid or club-shaped appearance that are catalase-positive and non-acid-fast (Boone et al., 2001; Greenwood, 2007).

What type of pathogen is diphtheria?

Diphtheria is a serious infection caused by strains of bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae that make a toxin (poison). It is the toxin that can cause people to get very sick. Diphtheria bacteria spread from person to person, usually through respiratory droplets, like from coughing or sneezing.

Does zinc give you body odor?

A dietary imbalance of magnesium or zinc can contribute to offensive body odour as well. One of the main things zinc does is processes carbohydrates into waste, but if you don’t have enough of it, this clearing process is hindered and odours can ensue.

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Where is Corynebacterium normally found?

Habitat. Corynebacterium species occur commonly in nature in soil, water, plants, and food products. The nondiphtheiroid Corynebacterium species can even be found in the mucosa and normal skin flora of humans and animals.

Does Zinc stop body odor?

Zinc oxide reduces body odor caused by bacteria and aids wound healing.

Can Corynebacterium cause a UTI?

Corynebacterium urealyticum is a cause of urinary tract infection and encrusting cystitis or pyelitis.

What is the morphology of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

C. diphtheriae is a pleomorphic, club-shaped, Gram positive bacillus that is catalase positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, and non-acid fast. On Gram stain, the organisms are typically described as having a picket fence or Chinese character morphology (image 3).

How do you test for Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

Doctors usually decide if a person has diphtheria by looking for common signs and symptoms. They can swab the back of the throat or nose and test it for the bacteria that cause diphtheria. A doctor can also take a sample from an open sore or ulcer and try and grow the bacteria.

Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae urease positive?

diphtheriae, C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis) are pyrazinamidase negative while other corynebacteria are positive. The urease test is used to determine the ability of an organism to split urea, through the production of the enzyme urease.

Is Corynebacterium Xerosis acid fast positive?

The genus Corynebacterium is composed of a wide variety of Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, nonmotile, rod-shaped, catalase-positive bacteria. The bulk of the species is considered to be normal cutaneous, pharyngeal and gastrointestinal flora of humans.

Does Corynebacterium Diphtheriae ferment mannitol?

The biochemical reactions for coryneform bacteria were as follows: cata- lase positive, fermentative; nonmotile; nitrate reduction positive; urea hydrolysis negative; esculin hydrolysis negative; fermentation of glucose, maltose, and sucrose and no fermentation of mannitol and xylose; pyrazinami- dase negative and CAMP …

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Is Corynebacterium Diphtheriae beta hemolytic?

CORYNEBACTERIA CULTIVATION ON BLOOD AGAR on media with blood with a weak beta-hemolysis (C. diphtheriae biotype mitis and gravis) or is nonhemolytic (biotype intermedius).

Does Corynebacterium Diphtheriae have Fimbriae?

Pili or fimbriae are known virulence factors that facilitate bacterial colonization of specific host tissues and pathogenesis. Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the causative agent of pharyngeal diphtheria, harbors three pilus gene clusters encoding the heterotrimeric SpaA-, SpaD-, and SpaH-type pili.

What Agar is for Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

C. diphtheriae grows well on blood agar, but tellurite blood agar (Hoyle’s medium) is recommended as this inhibits other respiratory flora and allows the characteristic colonial morphology of the three biotypes (gravis, intermedius and mitis) to develop.

What toxin does diphtheria produce?

Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The toxin gene is encoded by a prophage called corynephage . … Diphtheria toxin.

Diphtheria toxin, C domain
TCDB 1.C.7
showAvailable protein structures:

What is the major virulence factor associated with Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?

The main virulence factor of C. diphtheriae is diphtheria toxin (DT), an exotoxin, released by the bacteria after entering the human body.

What is Albert stain?

Albert stain is a type of differential stain used for staining high-molecular-weight polymers of polyphosphate known as metachromatic granules or volutin granules found in Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Metachromatic granules are also found in Yersinia pestis, and Mycobacterium species.