What does radial arm maze test?

The Radial Arm Maze (RAM) was designed by Olton and Samuelson (1976) to measure spatial learning and memory in rats. It is an apparatus consisting of eight horizontal equidistantly spaced arms (usually 57 × 11 cm) radiating from a small circular central platform (30 cm in diameter) elevated (70 cm) off the floor.

Which is true about a typical radial arm maze experiment?

Which is TRUE about a typical radial-arm maze experiment? In a typical radial-arm maze experiment, food is continually available in one arm so the most efficient strategy for obtaining food is therefore to learn where that arm is.

Who invented radial arm maze?

David S Olton The radial arm maze was first designed by Drs David S Olton and Robert J Samuelson in 1976 [1] as an apparatus for testing reference and working memory in rodents and for the modeling of “serial learning”, the term used to describe the means by which we learn and recall lists and other forms of sequential information.

What does the T maze measure?

T Maze Spontaneous Alternation is a behavioral test for measuring exploratory behavior in animals, especially rodent models for CNS disorders. This test is based on the willingness of rodents to explore a new environment, i.e. they prefer to visit a new arm of the maze rather than a familiar arm.

What is Y maze?

Y Maze Spontaneous Alternation is a behavioral test for measuring the willingness of rodents to explore new environments. … Testing occurs in a Y-shaped maze with three white, opaque plastic arms at a 120° angle from each other.

What is the Mumby box?

Mumby Box. An apparatus that is used in a rat version of the delayed nonmatching-to-sample test. Entorhinal Cortex. the portion of the rhinal cortex within the rhinal fissure.

What is a major advantage of Aplysia for studies on the physiology of learning?

What is a major advantage of Aplysia for studies on the physiology of learning? there is great similarity of nervous system anatomy from one individual to another. You just studied 44 terms!

What causes hippocampal damage?

Hippocampal injury can manifest from numerous causes, which comprise head trauma, ischemia, hemorrhagic stroke, acute seizures, status epilepticus (SE), encephalitis, brain tumors, drug withdrawal, exposure to chronic unpredictable stress, and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) [8–12].

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What is the hippocampus?

Hippocampus is a complex brain structure embedded deep into temporal lobe. It has a major role in learning and memory. It is a plastic and vulnerable structure that gets damaged by a variety of stimuli. Studies have shown that it also gets affected in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Which type of movement is possible in case of radial arm?

4. Which type of movement is possible in case of radial arm? Explanation: Only up and down movement is possible in this case. Generally, horizontal movement is not possible in radial arm.

What is elevated plus maze test?

The Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test is used to assess anxiety-related behavior in rodent models of CNS disorders. The EPM apparatus consists of a +-shaped maze elevated above the floor with two oppositely positioned closed arms, two oppositely positioned open arms, and a center area.

What is reference memory?

Reference memory is a long-term memory. In a spatial task, it mimics two aspects of episodic memory, namely the “what” (content) and “where” (place) dimensions of an event. One of the tasks most frequently used to assess spatial reference memory in the rat is the Morris water maze.

How long does it take a rat to learn a maze?

The time necessary to reach the goal box is recorded. Before exposure to nerve agent, the rats are trained to reach the goal box as soon as possible by moving to the correct segment in the T-maze. It usually takes 4–6 weeks of training to reach the criterion, which was 80% or more correct behavior.

Do rats like mazes?

Rats are particularly gifted at running mazes. Their maze-running ability comes from their evolutionary history: rats are small burrowing rodents that have spent millenia digging and finding their way around underground tunnels. It’s no wonder they have a knack with mazes.

What is the T-maze used for?

Purpose. The concepts of T-mazes are used to assess rodent behavior. The different tasks such as left-right discrimination and forced alternation are mainly used with rodents to test reference and working memory.

What is maze test?

The MAZE is a multiple choice test that students complete while reading silently. • The first sentence is left intact, and then every seventh word is replaced with three. words in parenthesis. The students must decide which of the three choices fits the original passage.

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How do you calculate spontaneous alternation?

The entry is considered when all four limbs are within the arm. The alternation percentage is calculated by dividing the number of alternations by number of possible triads x 100. The maze is cleaned with Virkon solution between animals to eliminate odor traces.

What is passive avoidance test?

The Passive Avoidance task is a fear-aggravated test used to evaluate learning and memory in rodent models of CNS disorders. In this test, subjects learn to avoid an environment in which an aversive stimulus (such as a foot-shock) was previously delivered.

What kind of amnesia did HM have?

Amnesia. Molaison’s general condition has been described as heavy anterograde amnesia, as well as temporally graded retrograde amnesia. Since Molaison did not show any memory impairment before the surgery, the removal of the medial temporal lobes can be held responsible for his memory disorder.

What is object memory?

Object memory is a type of working memory that is not motivated by food rewards or aversive environments but by the natural tendency of mammals to investigate novel objects or familiar objects in novel locations (Ennaceur et al., 1997).

What structure of the medial temporal lobes plays a role in memory for spatial location?

The hippocampus The medial temporal lobe (MTL) contains several structures related to important cognitive and emotional functions. The hippocampus and its adjacent parahippocampal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and perirhinal cortex are the primary regions deemed responsible for the formation of memories and spatial cognition.

Why do neuroscientists use Aplysia?

Aplysia californica is used in neuroscience research for studies of the cellular basis of behavior including: habituation, dishabituation, and sensitization, because of the simplicity and relatively large size of the underlying neural circuitry.

Why is Aplysia good to study?

The nice feature that makes Aplysia so attractive for neurobiologists is its large brain cells (neurons). The cell body of one neuron can measure up to 1mm in diameter, which makes it relatively easy to study the physiology of these cells to find out how they accomplish learning.

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What causes habituation in Aplysia?

Aplysia exhibits a reflexive withdrawal of its gill and siphon in response to weak or moderate tactile stimulation of its skin. Repeated tactile stimulation causes this defensive withdrawal reflex to habituate.

Can hippocampus be repaired?

An injury to the hippocampus can cause serious memory problems. But fortunately, physical and cognitive exercises can help reverse some of the worst effects of hippocampal damage and improve your memory skills.

What foods are good for the hippocampus?

Foods high in resveratrol (which your hippocampus loves!): red grapes, red wine, peanut butter, cranberries, and blueberries.

How do I strengthen my hippocampus?

3 Ways To Improve Your Hippocampus Function

  1. Exercise. You can generate new hippocampi neurons by exercising. …
  2. Change Your Diet. Diet plays a central role in improving your memory. …
  3. Brain Training. By the time we’re fully-grown, we have millions of well-developed neural pathways.

Do we have two hippocampus?

Because the brain is lateralized and symmetrical, you actually have two hippocampi. They are located just above each ear and about an inch-and-a-half inside your head.

Where are memories stored?

Different types are stored across different, interconnected brain regions. For explicit memories – which are about events that happened to you (episodic), as well as general facts and information (semantic) – there are three important areas of the brain: the hippocampus, the neocortex and the amygdala.

Why is the hippocampus so vulnerable?

The hippocampal formation is at the same time a very plastic brain region and a very vulnerable one to insults such as head trauma, ischemia, seizures and severe stress. Circulating glucocorticoids and endogenous excitatory amino acids acting as neurotransmitters play important roles in both aspects.

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