What is a Crenel in architecture?

A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications. … The space between two merlons is called a crenel, and a succession of merlons and crenels is a crenellation. Crenels designed in later eras for use by cannons were also called embrasures.

What are merlons and crenels?

Crenels are rectangular gaps or indentations which occur at regular intervals along the parapet, usually measuring 2-3 ft wide. Merlons are the solid widths between the crenels, usually measuring 4-5 ft wide and 3-7 ft high.

What is the meaning of Crenated?

: having the margin or surface cut into rounded scallops crenated red blood cells.

What is a Balistraria?

: a narrow often cruciform opening in a wall (such as a tower or fortress) for discharging arrows (as from a crossbow)

Why do churches have battlements?

A fortified church is a church that is built to serve a defensive role in times of war. Such churches were specially designed to incorporate military features, such as thick walls, battlements, and embrasures.

What are battlements used for?

The function of battlements in war is to protect the defenders by giving them something to hide behind, from which they can pop out to launch their own missiles.

What are castle parapets?

A parapet originally meant a defensive mini-wall made of earth or stone that was built to protect soldiers on the roof of a fort or a castle. Now it indicates any low wall along the roof of a building, the edge of a balcony, the side of a bridge, or similar structure.

What is a castle’s stone tower called?

Gatehouse: A building protecting the entrance to a castle. Great Hall: The main room in the building where the castle owner and his family lived. Keep: Main stone tower of a castle. This large tower was also known as a donjon.

What are merlons and Crenels and what were they used for?

alternating low portions known as crenels, or crenelles (hence crenellated walls with battlements), and high portions called merlons. Battlements were devised in order that warriors might be protected by the merlons and yet be able to discharge arrows or other missiles through the crenels.

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What is Crenated RBC?

When a red blood cell is placed in a hypertonic solution, such as a highly saline environment, there is a lower concentration of solute particles inside the cell than outside in the extracellular space. … As water leaves the cell, it shrinks and develops the notched appearance characteristic of crenation.

What is lysis and crenation?

Crenation cell shrinks by osmosis because H2O leaves cell. solution is HYPERtonic (hyper means excess, hypo means insuffient. Crenation (opposite of Lysis -cell swells/destroyed/hypotonic)

What is cell crenation?

crenation The shrinkage of cells that occurs when the surrounding solution is hypertonic to the cellular cytoplasm. Water leaves the cells by osmosis, which causes the plasma membrane to wrinkle and the cellular contents to condense.

What does battlements mean in English?

: a parapet with open spaces that surmounts a wall and is used for defense or decoration.

What are arrow windows in castles called?

An arrowslit (often also referred to as an arrow loop, loophole or loop hole, and sometimes a balistraria) is a narrow vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows or a crossbowman can launch bolts.

What is a tower in a castle?

A fortified tower (also defensive tower or castle tower or, in context, just tower) is one of the defensive structures used in fortifications, such as castles, along with curtain walls. Castle towers can have a variety of different shapes and fulfil different functions.

What is the difference between Crenellation and Castellation?

As adjectives the difference between castellated and crenellated. is that castellated is having turrets or battlements, like a castle while crenellated is having crenellations or battlements.

What is the difference between a parapet and battlement?

is that parapet is a low retaining wall while battlement is in fortification: an indented parapet, formed by a series of rising members called cops or merlons, separated by openings called crenelles or embrasures, the soldier sheltering himself behind the merlon while he fires through the embrasure or through a …

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What are the crenellations on a castle called?

Each upright section is called a merlon or crenel, and they protected defenders from attacks. Defenses could be further increased by the addition of shutters or doors over the gaps (embrasures) as recreated at Gravensteen in Gent, Belgium.

How do siege towers work?

Siege towers were used to get troops over an enemy curtain wall. When a siege tower was near a wall, it would drop a gangplank between it and the wall. Troops could then rush onto the walls and into the castle or city.

What are the holes in castle walls called?

Arrow slits or loop-holes (archeres) An arrowslit is a thin vertical aperture in a fortification through which an archer can launch arrows. It is alternatively referred to as an arrow loop, loop hole, or archere, and sometimes a balistraria.

What are the top of castles called?

battlements The top of the castle walls were the battlements, a protective, tooth shaped parapet often with a wall walk behind it for the soldiers to stand on. The defenders could fire missiles through gaps (crenels). The raised sections between, called merlons, helped to shelter the defenders during an enemy attack.

Why are parapets necessary?

Uses of Parapet Wall It helps to prevent the entry of dust particles in the roof. To hide the stored materials, machinery, and equipment on the rooftop. It helps to prevent the wind loads from coming on the rooftop. To provide safety to humans and prevent accidents like falling down from the rooftop.

How many types of parapets are there?

How many types of parapets are there? Explanation: The 4 types are plain, perforated, panelled and embattled.

Are parapets required?

11 requires all buildings to have parapets unless it meets one of 6 exceptions. The first of which is a required fire rating per table 602.

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What is the oldest castle still standing?

Windsor Castle The Citadel of Aleppo is the oldest castle in the world, with some parts of the structure dating back to 3000 BC. Built in 1070 AD, Windsor Castle is the oldest castle that is still actively used today. Prague Castle is the largest castle in the world at 70,000 square meters.

What is the inside of a castle called?

Dongjon or keep – The inner stronghold of a castle, usually found in one of the towers. Drawbridge – A heavy timber platform built to span a moat between a gate house and surrounding land that could be raised when required to block an entrance.

What are the 4 types of castles?

Use the links below to read through the information on each of the four different types of Medieval castles; Motte and Bailey, Concentric, Shell Keep and Square Keep.

What is a Merlon in medieval times?

A merlon is a solid, vertical part of the wall of a fort or a battlement. … If there are wide spaces between the merlons, they are called crenels. You can see merlons on a variety of old forts and castles, as they were commonly used from medieval times on.

How do you make a battlement?

Why is a drawbridge important?

Just like all bridges, drawbridges allow cars and people to cross over large bodies of water. The other purpose is what makes a drawbridge unique: when it moves, river traffic is not blocked and therefore can flow easily.