What is a monosaccharide in biology?

: a sugar that is not decomposable into simpler sugars by hydrolysis, is classed as either an aldose or ketose, and contains one or more hydroxyl groups per molecule.

Is a monosaccharide a carbohydrate?

Monosaccharides are carbohydrate molecules that cannot be broken down by hydrolysis 2 into simpler (smaller) carbohydrate molecules. Hence, monosaccharides are at times referred to as “simple sugars” or just :sugars, which infers that they are the simplest (smallest) of the carbohydrates.

What are monosaccharides in chemistry?

monosaccharide, also called simple sugar, any of the basic compounds that serve as the building blocks of carbohydrates. … The carbonyl group combines in aqueous solution with one hydroxyl group to form a cyclic compound (hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal). The resulting monosaccharide is a crystalline water-soluble solid.

Is monosaccharide a lipid?

Monosaccharides are the monomers that make up carbohydrates. Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. Glycerol and fatty acids are the monomers that make up lipids. … Sequences of monomers joined together make up polymers.

What is monosaccharide example?

Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose (levulose), and galactose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides (such as sucrose and lactose) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). … Some other monosaccharides can be converted in the living organism to glucose.

What is monosaccharide function?

Monosaccharides are the smallest carbohydrate molecules. They cannot be broken down into simpler carbohydrates, so they are also called simple sugars. … The two main functions of monosaccharides in the body are energy storage and as the building blocks of more complex sugars that are used as structural elements.

Is yogurt a monosaccharide?

Yogurt is simply the result of these lactate fermenting bacteria consuming lactose (the disaccharide present in milk) to form the two monosaccharides glucose and galactose (Fig.

Is Apple a monosaccharide?

Fructose. Fructose is a monosaccharide that can be found on its own in some fruits. Apples, pears, mangoes, grapes and watermelon have high levels of fructose. … The monosaccharide fructose can also be part of the disaccharide sucrose, which is made of a glucose attached to a fructose.

Which is not monosaccharide?

The correct answer is option (D) Sucrose. Sucrose is not a monosaccharide. Sucrose consists of glucose and galactose. Hence, sucrose is a disaccharide.

Read More:  What are the source for Addison's tragedy?

What are 3 common monosaccharides?

The three most common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose.

What is the basic structure of monosaccharides?

The monosaccharides include simple sugars and their derivatives. They are the basic carbohydrate units from which more complex compounds are formed. Monosaccharides consist of carbon atoms to which are attached hydrogen atoms, at least one hydroxyl group, and either an aldehyde (RCHO) or ketone (RCOR) group.

Which foods are monosaccharides?


  • Honey.
  • Dried fruits such as apples, dates and sultanas.
  • Fruit jams, chutney’s, barbecue & plum sauce, gherkins, sundried tomatoes.
  • Breakfast cereals with whole wheat, oats and fruits.
  • Canned fruits such as pineapple, strawberry and plum.
  • Fresh fruits including grapes, apples, pear, kiwi & banana.

What are the 4 types of monomers?

Monomers are atoms or small molecules that bond together to form more complex structures such as polymers. There are four main types of monomer, including sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides.

Is glycogen a monosaccharide?

This is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants. Glycogen is synthesized and stored mainly in the liver and the muscles. …

Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides
Glucose Sucrose Starch
Galactose Maltose Glycogen
Fructose Lactose Cellulose

What are examples of lipids?

Examples of lipids include fats, oils, waxes, certain vitamins (such as A, D, E and K), hormones and most of the cell membrane that is not made up of protein. Lipids are not soluble in water as they are non-polar, but are thus soluble in non-polar solvents such as chloroform.

What is a monosaccharide look like?

Monosaccharides are simple sugars made up of three to seven carbons, and they can exist as a linear chain or as ring-shaped molecules. Glucose, galactose, and fructose are monosaccharide isomers, which means they all have the same chemical formula but differ structurally and chemically.

What is the smallest monosaccharide?

dihydroxyacetone The smallest monosaccharides, for which n = 3, are dihydroxyacetone and d- and l-glyceraldehyde. They are referred to as trioses (tri- for 3). Dihydroxyacetone is called a ketose because it contains a keto group, whereas glyceraldehyde is called an aldose because it contains an aldehyde group.

Read More:  What is the barrier effect in biology?

How do you classify a monosaccharide?

Monosaccharides can be classified by the number of carbon atoms in the structure and/or the type of carbonyl group they contain (aldose or ketose). Most monosaccharides contain at least one chiral carbon and can form stereoisomers. Enantiomers are a specific type of stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other.

What is the importance of monosaccharide?

The most important monosaccharide for living things is glucose. It is the main source of chemical energy used for cell functions in all organisms, from bacteria to humans. Plants and certain microorganisms can manufacture glucose through photosynthesis.

What are the properties of monosaccharide?

Physical properties of monosaccharides

  • Monosaccharides are colourless and crystalline compounds.
  • They are readily soluble in water.
  • They have sweet tase.
  • D-glucose and L-glucose are mirror images of each other.
  • The presence of asymmetric carbon atoms in a compound give rise to the formation of isomers of that compound.

What is a monosaccharide made of?

The monosaccharides include simple sugars and their derivatives. They are the basic carbohydrate units from which more complex compounds are formed. Monosaccharides consist of carbon atoms to which are attached hydrogen atoms, at least one hydroxyl group, and either an aldehyde (RCHO) or ketone (RCOR) group.

Is milk a monosaccharide?

Carbohydrates, especially lactose, are one of the major elements that have been identified. Lactose: Lactose is a type of sugar found only in milk. … A disaccharide is made up of two simple sugars or monosaccharides. When lactose is broken down, it turns into two simple sugars known as glucose and galactose.

What fruits have monosaccharides?

Fructose is present as the free monosaccharide in many fruits, vegetables, and honey, and is more than twice as sweet as glucose.

Is Onion a monosaccharide?

a) Monosaccharides Free glucose occurs in small amounts in fruits and vegetables, especially grapes and onions, while fructose is the primary monosaccharide in fruits, honey and commercially manufactured high-fructose corn syrup.

Read More:  Where is the acetabulum bone?

Is baked beans a monosaccharide?

The most common monosaccharides provided by foods are glucose, fructose and galactose. Sweet foods such as honey and cane sugar are rich in monosaccharides, but a wide variety of other foods, such as dairy products, beans and fruit, also contain these simple sugars.

What fruit has the lowest fructose?

People who have fructose intolerance should limit high-fructose foods, such as juices, apples, grapes, watermelon, asparagus, peas and zucchini. Some lower fructose foods — such as bananas, blueberries, strawberries, carrots, avocados, green beans and lettuce — may be tolerated in limited quantities with meals.

Is honey a monosaccharide?

Honey is composed primarily of the simple sugars glucose and fructose – known as monosaccharides and a further 17% to 20% of water. Honey also contains other types of sugars such as sucrose (which is a disaccharide composed of fructose and glucose linked together through α-1–4 linkage).

Which one of the following is a monosaccharide?

Among the given carbohydrates, fructose is a monosaccharide.

Which phenol is used in Molisch’s test?

α-naphthol Molisch’s test is a sensitive chemical test, named after Austrian botanist Hans Molisch, for the presence of carbohydrates, based on the dehydration of the carbohydrate by sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid to produce an aldehyde, which condenses with two molecules of a phenol (usually α-naphthol, though other phenols …

How is galactose formed?

Galactose is a monosaccharide. When combined with glucose (monosaccharide), through a condensation reaction, the result is a disaccharide called lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzymes lactase and β-galactosidase.

Scroll to Top