What is a stereotaxic apparatus?

A stereotaxic device uses a set of three coordinates that, when the head is in a fixed position, allows for the precise location of brain sections. Stereotactic surgery may be used to implant substances such as drugs or hormones into the brain.

What is a stereotaxic apparatus quizlet?

stereotaxic apparatus. holds the animals head rigidly in a 3-D coordinate system. stereotaxic atlas. collection of drawings or sections of the brain with measurements that provide coordinates. stereotaxic surgery.

What is the function of a stereotaxic apparatus?

Stereotaxic instrument function Various stains and immune-markers can show regional chemical variation in brain. Stereotaxic insertion of probes – for stimulation, injection, recording, microdialysis, lesion or other functions – is an important technique to gain understanding of brain functional organization.

What is a stereotaxic apparatus What is it used for quizlet?

Stereotaxic Apparatus. a device that permits a surgeon to position an electrode or cannula into a specific part of the brain. Fixative. A chemical such as formalin; used to prepare and preserve body tissue. Formalin.

What is a craniotomy?

Listen to pronunciation. (KRAY-nee-AH-toh-mee) An operation in which a piece of the skull is removed. A craniotomy may be done so doctors can remove a brain tumor or abnormal brain tissue.

Is a burr hole a craniotomy?

In general, burr holes are less invasive than a craniotomy. During a craniotomy, a part of your skull is removed through a temporary incision. After your surgeon is done needing access to your brain, the section of your skull is placed back over your brain and secured with screws or metal plates.

What is the difference between a lesion and an ablation quizlet?

What is the difference between a lesion and an ablation? A lesion is damage to a structure. An ablation is removal of the structure. For example, a blood clot might produce a lesion, whereas surgery could produce an ablation.

What is the stereotaxic atlas used for quizlet?

Stereotaxic atlas. A series of maps representing the three-dimensional structure of the brain that is used to determine coordinates for stereotaxic surgery.

What two actions result in a decrease of a rat’s food intake?

What two actions result in a DECREASE of a rat’s food intake? destroying the lateral hypothalamus and stimulating the ventromedial hypothalamus.

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What is stereotaxic Lesioning?

A stereotactic brain surgery is a surgical procedure where lesion, frequently a brain tumor, is removed with assistance of image guidance, that is previously obtained images (usually an MRI) are used to guide the surgeon to the exact location of the lesion to facilitate as accurate a pathway through the brain and safe …

Who discovered the stereotaxic surgery techniques *?

Stereotactic surgery began in 1908 when two British scientists – Sir Victor Horsley, a neurosurgeon and neurophysiologist, and Robert Clarke, a mathematician published the description of a device used to make electrolytic lesions in the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum of a monkey (Horsley and Clarke, 1908).

Which chemical or method can be used to stain the cell bodies of neurons?

Bodian staining uses silver proteins, copper, and gold chloride to stain neuronal cell bodies (soma) and nerve processes dark brown.

How do researchers know the proper location to place electrodes or cannulae in the brains of animals?

The correct location of guide cannula placement for each brain region can be calculated by adding or subtracting from Bregma, with the aid of a stereotaxic atlas9 11. Position the guide cannula in its correct location, slightly touching the skull.

How many coordinate S is are needed with stereotaxic surgery to specify a particular brain area?

The stereotactic atlas is a series of cross sections of anatomical structure (for example, a human brain), depicted in reference to a two-coordinate frame. Thus, each brain structure can be easily assigned a range of three coordinate numbers, which will be used for positioning the stereotactic device.

What happened over time to the rats who had their ventromedial hypothalamus destroyed?

What happened over time to the rats who had their ventromedial hypothalamus destroyed? they ate more food at first but their eating pattern stabilized.

What are the side effects of a craniotomy?

Craniotomy risks, side effects, and complications

  • head scarring.
  • dent where bone flap was removed.
  • injury from the head device.
  • facial nerve damage.
  • damage to the sinuses.
  • infection of the bone flap or skin.
  • seizures.
  • brain swelling.

Is a craniotomy a serious surgery?

No surgery is without risks. General complications of any surgery include bleeding, infection, blood clots, and reactions to anesthesia. Specific complications related to a craniotomy may include stroke, seizures, swelling of the brain, nerve damage, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and loss of some mental functions.

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What are the risks of a craniotomy?

Risks of the procedure

  • Infection.
  • Bleeding.
  • Blood clots.
  • Pneumonia (infection of the lungs)
  • Unstable blood pressure.
  • Seizures.
  • Muscle weakness.
  • Brain swelling.

Why did doctors drill holes in skulls?

Drilling holes into a person’s skull is still practiced today, although it’s usually called a craniotomy. In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of the skull to access the brain in order to treat conditions such as brain lesions and brain tumors , according to Johns Hopkins Medicine.

How painful is a craniotomy?

While craniotomy pain may be less severe than pain after other operations, there is a growing consensus that it remains under-treated in the acute recovery phase for at least a minority of patients [1, 3, 5]. The quality of pain is normally described as pulsating or pounding akin to ‘tension headaches’.

What happens after a craniotomy?

Your cuts (incisions) may be sore for about 5 days after surgery. Your scalp may swell with fluid. You may also have numbness and shooting pains near your wound. And you may have swelling and bruising around your eyes.

What is meant by experimental ablation method of studying the brain quizlet?

STUDY. experimental ablation. the removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region.

Which technique is dependent upon the release of oxygen from hemoglobin molecules?

Functional MRI makes use of a special signal called blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) contrast. Blood flowing through the brain carries oxygen on molecules called hemoglobin. Hemoglobin molecules also carry iron and therefore have a magnetic signal.

Why have some researchers been cautious about interpreting the results of brain scans particularly fMRI quizlet?

Why have some researchers been cautious about interpreting the results of brain scans, particularly fMRI? … The fMRI misses a great deal of information due to its lower sensitivity.

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Which technique records the BOLD signal?

Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are commonly used noninvasive techniques of functional neuroimaging that record, at a macroscopic level, signals arising from neuronal activity.

Which two brain imaging techniques do cognitive neuroscientists use to create images of brain activity while volunteers are engaging in cognitive activities?

Advanced noninvasive neuroimaging techniques such as EEG and fMRI allow researchers to directly observe brain activities while subjects perform various perceptual, motor, and/or cognitive tasks.

Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique?

Which of the following is a weakness of the gene knockout technique as a method of biopsychological research? Most behavioral traits are influenced by many interacting genes. Elimination of one gene often influences the expression of other genes. The effects of some gene knockouts are likely to depend on experience.

What is the hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach?

Which of the following is a hunger arousing hormone?

Question Answer
Ghrelin a hunger arousing hormone secreted by an empty stomach; sends “I’m hungry” signals to the brain
Insulin Hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose

Why Wistar rats are used in research?

The Wistar Han rat has been a top choice for many leading pharmaceutical, chemical and contract research organizations due to the many advantages it offers, such as smaller body size and high rates of survival.

What should a rat’s diet consist of?

Rats are omnivores, meaning they are healthiest when they eat a combination of fruits, veggies, and meats. So, the best rat diet consists of mostly fresh fruits and vegetables, plus a small portion of rat pellets or rat cube food daily.

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