What is hypogene ore?

The term hypogene is mainly used in the field of ore geology. It describes mineralization within and below the Earth’s crust that is caused by ascending thermal fluids which derive from a magmatic source. … A variety of the ore-forming minerals formed by hypogene processes are of great economic interest. What is hypogene and supergene?
Supergene is a term used to describe near-surface processes and their products, formed at low temperature and pressure by the activity of descending water and gas. The opposite term is hypogene, formed by ascending water and gas at high temperature and pressure.

What is hypogene enrichment?

Supergene sulfide enrichment, also called Secondary Enrichment, in geology, natural upgrading of buried sulfide deposits by the secondary or subsequent deposition of metals that are dissolved as sulfates in waters percolating through the oxidized mineral zone near the surface. Is siderite an ore of iron?
Siderite, also called chalybite, iron carbonate (FeCO3), a widespread mineral that is an ore of iron. The mineral commonly occurs in thin beds with shales, clay, or coal seams (as sedimentary deposits) and in hydrothermal metallic veins (as gangue, or waste rock).

Where is chalcocite found?

Chalcocite is sometimes found as a primary vein mineral in hydrothermal veins. However, most chalcocite occurs in the supergene enriched environment below the oxidation zone of copper deposits as a result of the leaching of copper from the oxidized minerals. It is also often found in sedimentary rocks. What are supergene deposits?

In ore deposit geology, supergene processes or enrichment are those that occur relatively near the surface as opposed to deep hypogene processes. … The reaction produces secondary sulfides with metal contents higher than those of the primary ore.

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Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is epigenetic geology?

Epigenetic. If a mineral deposit formed much later than the rocks which enclose it, it is said to be epigenetic. An example is a vein. The first step in the formation of a vein is the fracturing or breaking of rock along a fault zone, at a depth ranging from surface to several kilometers below surface.

What is called ore?

Ore is natural rock or sediment that contains one or more valuable minerals, typically containing metals, that can be mined, treated and sold at a profit. … Minerals of interest are generally oxides, sulfides, silicates, or native metals such as copper or gold.

What is Gossan rock?

Gossan is intensely oxidized, weathered or decomposed rock, usually the upper and exposed part of an ore deposit or mineral vein.

What is pyrrhotite mined for?

Pyrrhotite does not have specific applications. It is mined primarily because it is associated with pentlandite, sulfide mineral that can contain significant amounts of nickel and cobalt.

Is Quartz a primary mineral?

What is supergene Mineralisation?

A mineral deposition process in which near-surface oxidation produces acidic solutions that leach metals, carry them downward, and reprecipitate them, thus enriching sulfide minerals already present.

What is supergene copper?

Chalcocite and covellite are copper rich minerals usually formed in the supergene zone of ore deposits where the primary copper mineral is chalcopyrite. The deposit at Bristol, Connecticut is known for the magnificent crystals of chalcocite found in the 1840’s.

What are gangue minerals?

In mining, gangue (/ɡæŋ/) is the commercially worthless material that surrounds, or is closely mixed with, a wanted mineral in an ore deposit. … The separation of valuable mineral from gangue minerals is known as mineral processing, mineral dressing, or ore dressing.

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How is siderite used?

Siderite has been used as an iron ore and for steel production. Material from Cornwall, England has been called “chalybite,” after the Greek word for steel, referring to its iron and carbon content.

How do you identify siderite?

Siderite has Mohs hardness of 3.75-4.25, a specific gravity of 3.96, a white streak and a vitreous lustre or pearly luster. Siderite is antiferromagnetic below its Néel temperature of 37 K which can assist in its identification.

What is the other name for siderite?

siderite. / (ˈsaɪdəˌraɪt) / noun. Also called: chalybite a pale yellow to brownish-black mineral consisting chiefly of iron carbonate in hexagonal crystalline form.

Is chalcocite rare or common?

Chalcocite is very scarce, and it is formed from the mineral’s alteration of primary copper attacked by oxygen.

Is chalcocite magnetic?

However, for iron and copper, pyrite and chalcocite are nonmagnetic exceptions, due to physical and chemical considerations. The difference between ferromagnetic pyrrhotite and nonmagnetic pyrite probably is due to chemical orbital attributes.

Is chalcocite conductive?

A pure chalcocite aggregate (#1, Group I) has a conductivity similar to Telkes’ T2 i.e. ∼1800 S/m.

How is Covellite formed?

Covellite is known to form in weathering environments in surficial deposits where copper is the primary sulfide. As a primary mineral, the formation of covellite is restricted to hydrothermal conditions, thus rarely found as such in copper ore deposits or as a volcanic sublimate.

How do residual mineral deposits form?

Under the action of weathering, rocks and enclosed mineral deposits undergo disintegration and decomposition – soluble parts are removed and insoluble residues accumulate, forming residual mineral deposits.

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What is the zone of oxidation?

a zone found near the earth’s surface that forms as a result of chemical decomposition of unstable minerals under the action of surface waters and groundwater, as well as the oxygen and carbon dioxide present in the air and dissolved in these waters.

What is Syngenetic and epigenetic?

2.1 Syngenetic and epigenetic genesis of ore deposits. Ore deposits of economic value are formed under varied geological conditions. … In sedimentary rocks epigenetic processes, ore deposits are formed due to weathering and deposition of detrital sedimentary rocks in basins where placer deposits are emplaced.

What is Syngenetic and epigenetic deposits?

Sedimentary Ore Deposits are the example of syngenetic Ore Deposits. 4. Epigenetic Ore Deposits The Ore deposits that are formed later than the enclosing rock, are called “Epigenetic ore deposits”. Hydrothermal ore deposits are the example of epigenetic ore deposits.

What are epigenetic deposits?

a mineral deposit that formed later than the enclosing rocks. Infiltration deposits of ores of iron, copper, and uranium are also classified as epigenetic deposits. … Epigenetic deposits are contrasted to syngenetic deposits, which formed at the same time as the enclosing rocks.

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