The Kiesselbach plexus supplies blood to the anterior inferior (lower front) quadrant of the nasal septum. This area is also commonly known as the Little’s area, Kiesselbach’s area, or Kiesselbach’s triangle. The Kiesselbach plexus is named after Wilhelm Kiesselbach (1839-1902), a german otolaryngologist. What is the area of epistaxis?
Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are two types of nosebleeds: anterior (more common), and posterior (less common, but more likely to require medical attention).
How is Little’s area formed?
The Greater palatine artery and the Septal branch of superior labial artery enter into the nasals septum making a 90 degree turn to form the Littles area emerging from the floor of the nasal cavity. Is septal hematoma an emergency?
A septal hematoma requires urgent treatment from your doctor in order to stop any further complications arising.
Which artery is known as artery of epistaxis?
sphenopalatine artery The sphenopalatine artery, formerly known as the nasopalatine artery, is the terminal branch of the maxillary artery that is the main supply to the nasal cavity. It is colloquially know as the artery of epistaxis given its common involvement in cases of nose bleeds. Why is it called epistaxis?
Epistaxis is a Greek word meaning a dripping, especially of blood from the nose.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)
What causes epistaxis?
Local trauma is the most common cause, followed by facial trauma, foreign bodies, nasal or sinus infections, and prolonged inhalation of dry air. Children usually present with epistaxis due to local irritation or recent upper respiratory infection (URI).
What is anterior and posterior epistaxis?
Most cases of epistaxis occur in the anterior part of the nose, with the bleeding usually arising from the rich arterial anastomoses of the nasal septum (Kiesselbach’s plexus). Posterior epistaxis generally arises from the posterior nasal cavity via branches of the sphenopalatine arteries.
What is the importance of Little’s area?
Kiesselbach’s plexus is a vascular network of four or five arteries in the nose. It supplies the nasal septum. The arteries anastomose to form the plexus.
What makes up Kiesselbach plexus?
Kiesselbach plexus is an anastomosis with branches from both the internal and external carotid artery systems. The anterior ethmoid, greater palatine, sphenopalatine, and superior labial arteries all form a plexus of vessels in the anteroinferior nasal septum.
Where are the arteries in your nose?
What are the arteries that Anastomose in the Kiesselbach area?
Kiesselbach plexus (Kiesselbach area or Little’s area) is a vascular region of the anteroinferior nasal septum that comprises four arterial anastomoses:
- anterior ethmoidal artery. a branch of the ophthalmic artery.
- sphenopalatine artery. …
- greater palatine artery. …
- superior labial artery (septal branches)
What is the middle turbinate?
The middle turbinate is that part of the lateral mass of the ethmoid bone which projects from the external wall of the nasal cavity, continuous anteriorly with the lateral mass and separated from its posterior portion by a space known as the inferior ethmoidal fissure.
What does it mean when you have dry blood in your nose?
The most common cause of nosebleeds is dry air. Dry air can be caused by hot, low-humidity climates or heated indoor air. Both environments cause the nasal membrane (the delicate tissue inside your nose) to dry out and become crusty or cracked and more likely to bleed when rubbed or picked or when blowing your nose.
What happens if a hematoma is left untreated?
A hematoma is similar to a bruise or blood clot but, if left untreated, it can damage the tissue and lead to infection. An injury to the nose can rupture blood vessels in and around the septum where there is both bone and cartilage.
How long can septal hematoma last?
Treating a septal hematoma requires it to be incised and drained to prevent avascular necrosis of the septal hyaline cartilage. This will depend on diffusion of nutrients from its attached nasal mucosa. The septum can generally heal within 1 week, without any evidence of the incision.
Is septal hematoma rare?
A septal hematoma is a rare entity and can occur in any age group. The exact incidence of septal hematoma remains unknown. However, it has been reported to occur in 0.8% to 1.6% of patients with nasal injury attending ear, nose, and throat clinic.
Which is worse anterior or posterior epistaxis?
It can be hard to tell if you have a posterior or anterior nosebleed. Both can make blood flow toward the back of your throat if you’re lying on your back. But posterior nosebleeds can be much more serious. You’re more likely to need emergency help.
What medication causes epistaxis?
Anti-inflammatory drugs (eg, aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin [Coumadin], rivaroxaban), antiplatelet agents (eg, clopidogrel), and antiepileptics (eg, valproic acid) have been found to cause nosebleeds.
Does hypertension cause epistaxis?
Epistaxis is more common in hypertensive patients, perhaps owing to vascular fragility from long-standing disease. Hypertension, however, is rarely a direct cause of epistaxis. More commonly, epistaxis and the associated anxiety cause an acute elevation of blood pressure.
Can saline spray cause nose bleeds?
Even sprays like saline spray, which are meant to moisturize the nose, can paradoxically cause bleeding in the area where the spray hits the nose. Nasal sprays can sometimes treat a dry nose, but if you use them often and are getting frequent nosebleeds, try using a different, nonnasal treatment.
What are the three types of epistaxis?
Read on to find out about treatments for different nosebleeds.
- Anterior nosebleed. If you have an anterior nosebleed, you bleed from the front of your nose, usually a nostril. …
- Posterior nosebleed. If you have a posterior nosebleed, you bleed from the back of your nose. …
- Nosebleeds caused by foreign objects. …
How is epistaxis diagnosis?
To diagnose epistaxis, routine laboratory testing is not required. Patients with symptoms or signs of a bleeding disorder and those with severe or recurrent epistaxis should have complete blood count (CBC), prothrombin time (PT), and partial thromboplastin time (PTT).
What causes recurrent epistaxis?
Nosebleeds that recur often are commonly caused by bleeding from the front of the nose (anterior epistaxis). Common causes of this type of nosebleed are: Blowing or picking the nose. Structural problems in the nose, either present from birth (congenital) or caused by an injury.
Can stress cause nosebleeds?
Headaches, sometimes triggered by stress, can result in or be accompanied by a nosebleed. If you tend to pick your nose or blow your nose frequently when you feel stressed or anxious, that could also trigger a nosebleed.
What is the most common site of hemorrhage for epistaxis?
The most common site of bleeding is the Kiesselbach plexus, an area in the anterior septum with rich vasculature and thin mucosa. Epistaxis results from the interaction of multiple factors that damage the nasal mucosal lining, affect the vessel walls, or alter the coagulability of the blood.
How do you treat an anterior nosebleed?
What to do
- sit down and firmly pinch the soft part of your nose, just above your nostrils, for at least 10-15 minutes.
- lean forward and breathe through your mouth – this will drain blood into your nose instead of down the back of your throat.
How do I know if I have an anterior or posterior nosebleed?
Anterior nosebleeds originate toward the front of the nose and cause blood to flow out through the nostrils. This is the most common type of nosebleed and it is usually not serious. Posterior nosebleeds originate toward the back of the nasal passage, near the throat.
Graduated from ENSAT (national agronomic school of Toulouse) in plant sciences in 2018, I pursued a CIFRE doctorate under contract with Sun’Agri and INRAE in Avignon between 2019 and 2022. My thesis aimed to study dynamic agrivoltaic systems, in my case in arboriculture. I love to write and share science related Stuff Here on my Website. I am currently continuing at Sun’Agri as an R&D engineer.