The serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SERT, SLC6A4) is responsible for recycling serotonin from the synaptic cleft to the presynaptic neuron, terminating its effects and enabling its reuse (Murphy et al., 2004). A length polymorphism in its gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) results in differing levels of transporter expression.
What is the 5-HTT gene psychology?
The 5-HTT gene is responsible for regulating the chemical serotonin, which helps transmit messages in the brain. The people who showed a greater fear response during an experiment had a variation in the gene. This variation is linked to increasing the regulation of serotonin levels in the brain.
What does 5 HT transporter mean?
serotonin transporter The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Which copy of the 5-HTT gene is associated with depression?
We found that the s allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with depression and perceived stress in patients with coronary disease.
What does the HTT gene do?
The HTT gene provides instructions for making a protein called huntingtin. Although the exact function of this protein is unknown, it appears to play an important role in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain and is essential for normal development before birth.
What does HTT gene mean?
Huntingtin (Htt), is the protein coded for by the HTT gene, also known as the IT15 (interesting transcript 15) gene. Mutated HTT is the cause of Huntington’s disease (HD), and has been investigated for this role and also for its involvement in long-term memory storage.
What is polymorphic variation?
Polymorphism, in biology, a discontinuous genetic variation resulting in the occurrence of several different forms or types of individuals among the members of a single species. A discontinuous genetic variation divides the individuals of a population into two or more sharply distinct forms.
Is PP genotype or phenotype?
There are three available genotypes, PP (homozygous dominant ), Pp (heterozygous), and pp (homozygous recessive). All three have different genotypes but the first two have the same phenotype (purple) as distinct from the third (white).
Is serotonin an SSRI?
SSRIs treat depression by increasing levels of serotonin in the brain. Serotonin is one of the chemical messengers (neurotransmitters) that carry signals between brain nerve cells (neurons). SSRIs block the reabsorption (reuptake) of serotonin into neurons.
What is transporter gene?
Gene, transporter: A gene that allows drugs to enter cells or, in some cases, acts to keep them out. Transporter genes may account for discrepancies in the way drugs such as antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and chemotherapy agents work in different people. Also known as a drug-transporter gene.
Does reuptake increase neurotransmitters?
The main objective of a reuptake inhibitor is to substantially decrease the rate by which neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the presynaptic neuron, increasing the concentration of neurotransmitter in the synapse. This increases neurotransmitter binding to pre- and postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors.
Where are serotonin transporters found?
Serotonin transporters (5-HTT or SERT) and receptors (5-HT1 – 7) are located in the central, peripheral, and enteric nervous systems, and have been identified in several other peripheral tissues including bone.
What is an allele easy definition?
Allele, also called allelomorph, any one of two or more genes that may occur alternatively at a given site (locus) on a chromosome. Alleles may occur in pairs, or there may be multiple alleles affecting the expression (phenotype) of a particular trait.
What is HTT mutation?
Mutations in the HTT gene cause Huntington disease. The HTT gene provides instructions for making a protein called huntingtin. Although the function of this protein is unclear, it appears to play an important role in nerve cells (neurons) in the brain.
Does everyone have the HTT gene?
The HTT gene is found on chromosome 4, of which every person has two copies, one inherited from each biological parent. Huntington’s is an autosomal dominant disorder, meaning that a mutation in only one of the two copies of the gene is sufficient to cause the disease.
Has anyone survived Huntington’s disease?
The survival of Huntington’s disease (HD) patients is reported to be 15–20 years. However, most studies on the survival of HD have been conducted in patients without genetic confirmation with the possible inclusion of non-HD patients, and all studies have been conducted in Western countries.
How many exons does HTT have?
Ambrose et al. (1994) found that the HTT gene spans 180 kb and contains 67 exons ranging in size from 48 bp to 341 bp with an average of 138 bp.
What type of protein is htt?
Htt is a large, 350 kDa protein found in metazoans, with the highest degree of conservation among vertebrates [30-33]. It is predicted to form an elongated superhelical solenoid , and thought to have a flexible structure that can alter its activity .
How many exons does Huntington have?
Not Just One Huntingtin: Increasing Diversity and Fine-Tuning From Canonical Huntingtin to Huntingtin Isoforms HTT gene contains 67 exons and has two mRNA transcripts of 10,366 bp and of 13,711 bp (Lin et al., 1993).
What causes polymorphisms?
polymorphism can be maintained by a balance between variation created by new mutations and natural selection (see mutational load). genetic variation may be caused by frequency-dependent selection. multiple niche polymorphism exists when different genotypes should have different fitnesses in different niches.
How do polymorphisms occur?
DNA polymorphisms are produced by changes in the nucleotide sequence or length. These result from: (i) Variations in the fragment length pattern produced after digesting DNA with restriction enzymes, (ii) Variations in the size of a DNA fragment after PCR amplification, and (iii) Variations in the DNA sequence itself.
How many human genes are polymorphic?
A total of 512 highly polymorphic genes (see Additional file 1: Supplementary Methods) are identified.
What genotype is TT?
Genotype and Phenotype
|Homozygous||Two of the same allele||TT or tt|
|Heterozygous||One dominant allele and one recessive allele||Tt|
|Homozygous dominant||Two dominant alleles||TT|
|Homozygous recessive||Two recessive alleles||tt|
What is AA and AS genotype?
If the dominant allele is labeled as “A” and the recessive allele, “a”, three different genotypes are possible: “AA”, “aa”, and “Aa”. The term “homozygous” is used to describe the pairs “AA” and “aa” because the alleles in the pair are the same, i.e. both dominant or both recessive.
What is AA AS and SS genotype?
There are four hemoglobin genotypes (hemoglobin pairs/formations) in humans: AA, AS, SS and AC (uncommon). SS and AC are the abnormal genotypes or the sickle cells. We all have a specific pair of these hemoglobin in our blood which we inherited from both parents.
Which SSRI is best for anxiety?
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These include fluoxetine (aka Prozac), paroxetine (aka Paxil), sertraline (aka Zoloft), fluvoxamine (aka Luvox), citalopram (aka Celexa), and escitalopram (aka Lexapro). They tend to be the first line choice for multiple anxiety disorders and depression.
Is Xanax an SSRI?
Lexapro (escitalopram) and Xanax (alprazolam) are two different prescription drugs that can treat general anxiety as well as anxiety with depression. Lexapro is an SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) drug while Xanax is a benzodiazepine.
Does your brain go back to normal after antidepressants?
The process of healing the brain takes quite a bit longer than recovery from the acute symptoms. In fact, our best estimates are that it takes 6 to 9 months after you are no longer symptomatically depressed for your brain to entirely recover cognitive function and resilience.
Graduated from ENSAT (national agronomic school of Toulouse) in plant sciences in 2018, I pursued a CIFRE doctorate under contract with Sun’Agri and INRAE in Avignon between 2019 and 2022. My thesis aimed to study dynamic agrivoltaic systems, in my case in arboriculture. I love to write and share science related Stuff Here on my Website. I am currently continuing at Sun’Agri as an R&D engineer.