What is the Caldwell moloy classification?

The Caldwell-Moloy (1933) classification of four groups of female pelvic shape, Gynaecoid, Anthropoid, Android and Platypelloid, has been traditionally taught to students of midwifery and medicine and is still reported in the most recent midwifery and gynaecological textbooks.

What are the types of pelvis?

While pelvis shape can vary widely among females, there are four general types: gynecoid, android, anthropoid, and platypelloid. The shape of your pelvis may affect the ease in which you can give birth vaginally.

How do you assess pelvic adequacy?

Pelvimetry assesses the size of a woman’s pelvis aiming to predict whether she will be able to give birth vaginally or not. This can be done by clinical examination, or by conventional Xrays, computerised tomography (CT) scanning, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

What is a contracted pelvis in pregnancy?

Contracted Pelvis. Definition. Anatomical definition: It is a pelvis in which one or more of its diameters is reduced below the normal by one or more centimeters. Obstetric definition: It is a pelvis in which one or more of its diameters is reduced so that it interferes with the normal mechanism of labour.

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What is linea terminalis of pelvis?

Anatomical terminology The linea terminalis or innominate line consists of the pubic crest, pectineal line (pecten pubis), the arcuate line, the sacral ala, and the sacral promontory. It is the pelvic brim, which is the edge of the pelvic inlet.

What are the 4 types of pelvis?

Although pelvises can be classified according to diameter, in obstetric practice they are often divided into 4 main types: gynecoid, android, anthropoid, and platypelloid, based mainly on the shape of the pelvic inlet [5].

What forms the pelvic floor?

The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus muscle, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis.

What are the abnormalities of pelvis?

Female Pelvic Disorders

  • Pelvic organ prolapse. …
  • Vesicovaginal fistula, urethrovaginal fistula, ureterovaginal fistula, rectovaginal fistula. …
  • Incontinence. …
  • Overactive bladder. …
  • Female sexual function. …
  • Urethral diverticulum.

What are the diameters of the pelvis?


Name Description Average measurement in female
Anatomical conjugate Extends from the pubic symphysis to the promontory; about 120 mm.
Diagonal conjugate Extends from lower margin of the pubic symphysis to the sacral promontory; about 130 mm.

What is the meaning of adequate pelvis?

The true pelvis consists of the bony birth passage. For a vaginal delivery, this passage must be of adequate size and shape to allow the baby to pass through.

What measurement must we consider to assure fetal passage to the bony pelvis?

The narrowest diameter for the fetus to pass through is the pelvic outlet, which is only 11 cm wide in the average female pelvis.

Can you give birth naturally if you have a small pelvis?

Unfortunately, it is possible to be too small to give birth naturally. This is called cephalopelvic disproportion or CPD for short. We use this term when we deem that your pelvis is too small to deliver your baby vaginally.

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What is Kyphotic pelvis?

A deformed pelvis characterized by an increase of the conjugate diameter at the brim with reduction of the transverse diameter at the outlet.

What are the 4 abnormalities of labor in relation to power?

The diagnosis of abnormal labor (dystocia) has four major etiologic categories: (1) the passage, or pelvic architecture; (2) the passenger, or fetal size, presentation, and position; (3) the powers, or uterine action and cervical resistance; and (4) the patient and provider.

How does Linea Terminalis go?

Linea terminalis – Linea terminalis The terminal line of pelvis is a circular line the passes along the promontory of the sacrum dorsally, the wings of the ilia laterally and ends in the pecten of the pubis ventrally. It is circular in female animals an egg-shaped in male animal with the apex facing ventrally.

What measurement is identified with the Midpelvis?

Midpelvis: The midpelvis is the distance between the bony points of ischial spines, and it typically exceeds 12 cm. Pelvic outlet: The pelvic outlet is the distance between the ischial tuberosities and the pubic arch. It usually exceeds 10 cm.

Where is the iliopectineal line?

The iliopectineal line is a curvilinear line running from the iliosacral joint along the medial border of the iliac wing and the superior border of the superior pubic bone up to the symphysis and delineates the inner margin of the pelvic ring 1 4.

Do narrow hips make childbirth harder?

Baby’s size The baby might be slightly wider than the hips, and if so, this could potentially slow down delivery. Just the same, a woman with a narrow-shaped pelvis which typically makes it more difficult to deliver may have a smoother birth due to delivering a smaller baby.

What is the fetal skull?

The fetal skull bones are as follows: The frontal bone, which forms the forehead. In the fetus, the frontal bone is in two halves, which fuse (join) into a single bone after the age of eight years. The two parietal bones, which lie on either side of the skull and occupy most of the skull.

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What is Roberts pelvis?

[ rbrts ] n. A pelvis that is narrowed transversely due to the almost entire absence of the alae of the sacrum.

What Innervates the pelvic floor?

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Many well-regarded medical texts and review articles state that the pelvic floor muscles are innervated both by the pudendal nerve and by direct branches of the third and fourth sacral motor nerve roots. Such direct branches are more prone to damage during childbirth or surgical interventions.

What does obturator Internus do?

The obturator internus (OI) is a hip muscle that originates deep within the pelvis, wraps out and inserts on the posterior aspect of the femur head (the top of the thigh bone when it combines to form the hip joint). The main movement function of the OI is to rotate the leg externally.

How can I tighten my pelvic floor muscles fast?


  1. Sit in a comfortable position, close the eyes, and visualize the muscles that can stop urine flow.
  2. Tighten these muscles as much as possible.
  3. Hold this position for 35 seconds. …
  4. Release the muscles and rest for several seconds.
  5. Repeat this up to 10 times.

What is XRAY Pelvimetry?

X-ray pelvimetry is used to assess the dimensions of the maternal pelvis. It is usually performed in the late stages of pregnancy in cases of suspected cephalopelvic dispro- portion or breech presentation, or post partum in patients who have had a previous caesarean section.

What are the 3 diameters of the pelvic outlet?

  • Antero – posterior diameters: Anatomical antero-posterior diameter =11cm. from the tip of the coccyx to the lower border of symphysis pubis. Obstetric antero-posterior diameter = 13 cm. …
  • Transverse diameters: Bituberous diameter = 11 cm. between the inner aspects of the ischial tuberosities. Bispinous diameter = 10.5 cm.

What is the smallest diameter of the pelvis?

Interspinous diameter 10.5cm is the smallest among the options provided.

What is the normal size of pelvis?

In the normal male pelvis this plane is described as more or less round, with practically equal anteroposterior and transverse diameters. On the other hand, in the normal female pelvis the plane of the superior strait is described as more oval, the transverse diameter averaging 13 cm. and the anteroposterior 11 cm.