Gnetophyta (/ntft, ntofat/) is a division of plants, grouped within the gymnosperms (which also includes conifers, cycads, and ginkgos), that consists of some 70 species across the three relict genera: Gnetum (family Gnetaceae), Welwitschia (family Welwitschiaceae), and Ephedra (family Ephedraceae).

What are Gnetophyta used for?

1) Phylum Gnetophyta It produces nectar to attract insects for pollination. Common name : Mormon tea, it is used medicinally by native Americans. Ephedra contains ephedrine, used to treat asthma, hay fever.

Where are gnetophytes found?

Gnetophyta plants are distributed around much of the world mostly in tropical and temperate climates. The genus Gnetum has a tropical distribution as is found in Southeast Asia, northern South America, the South Pacific and western Africa.

What are the characteristics of Gnetophyta?

Gnetophytes (approximately 70 extant species)

Is welwitschia a Gnetophyta?

gnetophyte, any member of the division Gnetophyta, a small group of gymnospermous vascular plants that are represented by three living genera: Ephedra, Gnetum, and Welwitschia. There are 65 species in the genus Ephedra, 30 or more in Gnetum, but only one in Welwitschia.

Are Gnetophyta a paraphyletic group?

An interesting outcome of their molecular analyses is the monophyletic clade, Pinaceae + Gnetophyta (called the Gne-Pine Hypothesis, Figure 2-A). FIGURE 1. … This is a paraphyletic group which includes the Mesozoic pteridosperms, cycads, conifers, ginkgophytes and the cycadeiods+gnetophytes+angiosperms..

What is a polygamous plant?

So, the polygamous plants are the flowering plants which have both unisexual (male, female) and bisexual flowers on the same plant. In other words, a plant may have both bisexual and male flowers or bisexual and female flowers. Some may have bisexual, male and female flowers.

What did Lycophytes evolve into?

Evolution of lycophytes Lycophytes are believed to be the oldest living lineage of vascular plants. Estimates of their evolution date back to more than 400 million years ago during the Silurian Period, long before gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Is Gnetophyta a phylum?

The gnetophytes are a small group of vascular seed plants composing the phylum Gnetophyta, which is one of four phyla of gymnosperms that have living representatives.

Does Gnetophyta have flowers?

Although gnetophytes are gymnosperms, with no true flowers or fruits, they have some features in common with flowering plants: Vessel elements in the vascular system not seen in other gymnosperms. Both Welwitschia and some Gnetum species are pollinated by insects.

What are gymnosperms?

gymnosperm, any vascular plant that reproduces by means of an exposed seed, or ovuleunlike angiosperms, or flowering plants, whose seeds are enclosed by mature ovaries, or fruits. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally naked seeds) are borne in cones and are not visible until maturity.

How do Gnetophyta reproduce?

The reproductive structures of gnetophytes are contained within strobili, or cones. Most species are dioecious; i.e., one individual plant produces either pollen-producing or seed-producing cones, called microsporangiate and megasporangiate strobili, respectively.

Are pinophyta angiosperms?

Known as conifers, members of the division Pinophyta are among the most diverse of the gymnosperms, with some 630 living species across six families.

Which plant is known as jointed fir?

Ephedra (commonly known as joint pine, joint fir, Mormon tea or Brigham tea) is the only genus in family Ephedraceae and order Ephedrales.

How long can welwitschia leaves grow?

The leaves grow annually an average 13.8 sm. Therefore the plant can produce up to 150 metres of leaf tissue over a growth period of 1000 years. The leaves are on average 1.4 cm thick.

What country is the Namib Desert in?

Africa: Namibia. This extremely arid ecoregion comprises shifting sand dunes, gravel plains and rugged mountains. The world’s oldest desert, the Namib Desert has existed for at least 55 million years, completely devoid of surface water but bisected by several dry riverbeds.

What is the national flower of Namibia?

Welwitschia mirabilis Welwitschia is a monotypic gymnosperm genus, comprising solely the distinctive Welwitschia mirabilis, endemic to the Namib desert within Namibia and Angola. The plant is commonly known simply as welwitschia in English, but the name tree tumbo is also used.

Why Ephedra is called jointed fir?

Stem: The stem is green, woody, hard, glabrous and much branched. The branches are also green and photosynthetic &arise in the axils of scale leaves. The stem is distinctly jointed and differentiated into nodes and internodes. Hence , the plants are commonly called ‘Jointed fir’.

How many members are there in Gnetales order?

Gnetaceae. Gnetaceae, a family of tropical gymnosperms in the order Gnetales (division Gnetophyta), composed of one genus, Gnetum, with 30 or more species.

What plant fertilizes an egg?

Fertilization occurs as a sperm cell in a pollen tube fuses with the egg cell of an ovule, resulting in a plant embryo. … Inside the tubes are the sperm cells that will fertilize the egg cells and cause them to develop into seeds.

What are Angiospermic characters of Gnetales?

Some of the characteristics common in both Gnetum and other gymnosperms are under mentioned:

Is banana a polygamous plant?

The flowers are polygamous i.e. staminate flowers, pistillate flowers and bisexual flowers are present in the same plant. The male flowers lie within the upper bracts, the female flowers within the lower bracts and the bisexual flowers within the middle bracts.

What is polygamous and example?

Polygamy is defined as having more than one spouse at a time. When a man is married to three women at the same time, this is an example of polygamy. noun.

What animals practice polygamy?

Polygyny is typical of one-male, multi-female groups and can be found in many species including: elephant seal, spotted hyena, gorilla, red-winged prinia, house wren, hamadryas baboon, common pheasant, red deer, Bengal tiger, Xylocopa sonorina, Anthidium manicatum and elk.

Why is Club Moss not a moss?

Most species of clubmosses prefer cool, shady and moist woodlands. They are not true mosses, which are non-vascular. Clubmosses are larger and taller. Clubmoss reproduction occurs through the dispersal of spores, found in sporangia, located singly or in groups, or in a yellow cone-like tip known as a strobilus.

What characteristics do members of phylum Gnetophyta have in common with angiosperms?

7 What characteristic do members of phylum Gnetophyta have in common with angiosperms? The gnetophytes are unique gymnosperms because their wood contains conducting cells, known as vessel elements, similar to the angiosperms, or flowering plants.

Are Gnetophyta Sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?

The conifers are the best known and most abundant of the gymnosperms. The sporophyte phase is dominant, and is the familiar cone-bearing tree. … The Gnetophyta is a phylum of unusual gymnosperms, with about 70 species in three genera, Gnetum, Ephedra, and Welwitschia.