What is the confluence of the sinuses?

The torcular Heterophili is also known as confluence of sinuses and is located at the occipital pole of the skull. It is formed by the merger of the SSS and the straight sinus draining most of the cerebral venous blood flow into the bilateral transverse sinuses.

How many sinuses drain blood directly from the brain into the confluence of sinuses?

three sinuses For these reasons, the cavernous sinus is also known as the anatomic jewel box. The confluence of sinuses drains blood from superior sagittal, straight, and occipital sinuses and lies along the occipital bone posteriorly; this is where these three sinuses meet to transmit venous blood to the left and right transverse …

What is the meaning of Torcular?

: the point at which the four great cranial venous sinuses meet.

What are venous lacunae?

Venous lacunae, also known as venous lakes, are enlarged venous spaces within the skull, most often in the parasagittal region. They are normal variants and their primary importance is that they may mimic lytic lesions.

What drains into sigmoid sinus?

Inconstant veins that drain into the sigmoid sinus include veins from the pons and medulla oblongata. The sigmoid sinus has anastomoses with the mastoid emissary and condylar emissary veins routinely.

Which of the following drain away from the confluence of sinuses?

The confluence of sinuses (torcular of Herophilus or torcula) is a dural venous sinus that appears as a dilation at the posterior end of the superior sagittal sinus. … Confluence of sinuses.

Drains from Superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus and occipital sinus
Drainage area Cerebral hemispheres

What is the great vein of Galen?

The great cerebral vein is one of the large blood vessels in the skull draining the cerebrum of the brain. It is also known as the vein of Galen, named for its discoverer, the Greek physician Galen. However, it is not the only vein with this eponym.

Why is the maxillary sinus prone to infection?

Maxillary sinusitis is common due to the close anatomic relation of the frontal sinus, anterior ethmoidal sinus and the maxillary teeth, allowing for easy spread of infection.

Which sinuses drain blood from the inferior view of the brain?

Inferior cerebral veins These veins return blood from the inferior aspect of the cerebral hemisphere into the transverse, superior petrosal, cavernous and sphenoparietal sinuses. Some also drain into the inferior sagittal sinus.

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Where is the Torcula in the brain?

The confluence of sinuses (torcular herophili, or torcula) is the connecting point of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, and occipital sinus. It is found deep to the occipital protuberance of the skull. Blood arriving at this point then proceeds to drain into the left and right transverse sinuses.

What is dural sinus thrombosis?

A dural sinus thrombosis is the occlusion of a dural sinus by a blood clot (or thrombus). Because of this occlusion, blood flowing out of the brain is backed up, and the brain tissue becomes congested.

What does transverse sinus drain into?

The transverse sinuses (left and right lateral sinuses) run laterally in a groove along the interior surface of the occipital bone. They drain from the confluence of sinuses (by the internal occipital protuberance) to the sigmoid sinuses, which ultimately connect to the internal jugular vein.

What is sinuses and lacunae?

The lateral lacunae are small openings that communicate with irregularly shaped venous spaces (venous lacunae) in the dura mater near the sinus. There are usually three lacunae on either side of the superior sagittal sinus: a small frontal, a large parietal, and an occipital, intermediate in size between the other two.

What are venous lakes?

Venous lakes are small, dark blue to purple slightly elevated papules. These papules are soft and compressible. They commonly appear on sun-exposed areas such as the face, lips, ears, neck and back of the hand of elderly people. These little purple papules are typically asymptomatic, causing no pain or symptoms.

What is emissary vein?

Emissary veins (also known as the vena emissaria) are veins which pass through foramina in the skull to provide a venous communication between the dural venous sinuses and veins of the scalp or veins inferior to the skull base (cranial-cerebral anastomosis). They are thin-walled and valveless.

What is a sigmoid sinus?

The sigmoid sinus is a large blood vessel that is part of the main venous blood flow that leaves the brain and drains into the jugular vein. The sinus exists on both sides. The sinus is covered normally in bone through the temporal bone near the middle and inner ear.

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What is the function of sigmoid sinus?

The sigmoid sinus is actually a pair of two sinuses (right and left) that enable veins to spread from the middle of the head downwards. This dual structure is considered an extension of the transverse sinus, which lies in the hind portion of the brain.

What is the sigmoid sinus a continuation of?

The sigmoid sinus is a paired intracranial vessel. It begins as a continuation of the transverse sinus around the opening on the tentorium cerebelli. From here, it descends downward, forming an S-shaped curve in a groove on the mastoid process of temporal bone.

What are brain sinuses?

The dural venous sinuses (also called dural sinuses, cerebral sinuses, or cranial sinuses) are venous channels found between the endosteal and meningeal layers of dura mater in the brain.

Where is the groove for transverse sinus?

occipital bone The groove for transverse sinus is a groove which runs along the internal surface of the occipital bone, running laterally between the superior and inferior fossae of the cruciform eminence. The transverse sinuses travel along this groove.

Where does occipital sinus drain?

The occipital sinus is the smallest of all dural venous sinuses. It lies in the base of the falx cerebelli on the inner side of the occipital bone. The occipital sinus drains the blood from the marginal sinus, which is a venous vessel situated along the rim of the foramen magnum.

What is the vein of Galen aneurysm?

Vein of Galen aneurysm is a rare form of arteriovenous malformation in which the embryonic precursor to the vein of Galen, a vein at the base of the brain, dilates causing too much blood to rush to the heart. This can lead to rapid heart failure.

What veins drain into the vein of Galen?

The internal occipital vein is the main vessel draining into the lateral aspect of the vein of Galen.

How many people have vein of Galen?

How Common are Vein of Galen Malformations? These malformations are extremely rare, making them difficult to diagnose right away. VOGMs account for approximately 1 in 3 cases of all arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in children.

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What is the treatment for maxillary sinusitis?

Treatment of maxillary sinusitis should primarily consist of restoring the normal milieu within the sinus by antral puncture and lavage. Penicillin V is still the first antibiotic drug of choice, because of its effectiveness in vitro and in vivo.

What are the symptoms of maxillary sinusitis?

Signs and symptoms of sinusitis Pain, headache, nasal obstruction, a purulent nasal secretion and ‘postnasal drip’ (a discharge of ‘mucopus’ into the pharynx) are commonly found and there may also be fever and malaise. The pain is dull, heavy, throbbing and located over the cheek and in the upper teeth.

How do you get rid of maxillary sinusitis?


  1. Nasal corticosteroids. …
  2. Saline nasal irrigation, with nasal sprays or solutions, reduces drainage and rinses away irritants and allergies.
  3. Oral or injected corticosteroids. …
  4. Allergy medications. …
  5. Aspirin desensitization treatment, if you have reactions to aspirin that cause sinusitis and nasal polyps.

What sinus drains the medulla?

Deoxygenated blood is drained from the midbrain region as it empties into the great cerebral and basal veins. Inferiorly, veins drain blood from the pons and medulla into the superior and inferior petrosal sinuses, as well as the transverse and occipital sinuses.

Which sinuses do the inferior petrosal sinuses drain to?

The Inferior Petrosal Sinus It drains the cavernous sinus and receives inflow from the auditory structures and drains into the sigmoid sinus and the superior jugular bulb on each side.

Which sinus does the superior cerebral vein drain into?

superior sagittal sinus Venous system The upper part of the hemisphere drains via the superior cerebral vein into the superior sagittal sinus, the middle part (via the inferior cerebral veins) into the cavernous sinus, and the lower part into the transverse sinus.