What is the difference between fault scarp and fault-line scarp?

A fault scarp (A) results directly from fault displacement whereas a fault-line scarp results from differential erosion (B). Modified from Stewart, I.S., Hancock, P.L., 1990.

What are the two sides of a fault scarp called?

A scarp represents the exposed surface of a fault, usually modified to some extent by erosion on the upthrown side and deposition on the downthrown side (figs.

What is fault fault and scarp?

Scarp is an abbreviation for escarpment meaning an abrupt rise in relief, a cliff or cuesta. … A fault scarp is one where the footwall surface is exposed; in other words, the feature must be very fresh, so that erosion has not destroyed all traces of the actual plane of the fault (Fig. 1).

What is a fault scarp of an earthquake?

The fault scarp is the feature on the surface of the earth that looks like a step caused by slip on the fault.

How do you identify fault scarp?

Characteristics. Fault scarps often contain highly fractured rock of both hard and weak consistency. In many cases, bluffs form from the upthrown block and can be very steep. The height of the scarp formation is equal to the vertical displacement along the fault.

What is meant by a scarp?

1 : the inner side of a ditch below the parapet of a fortification. 2a : a line of cliffs produced by faulting or erosion see fault illustration. b : a low steep slope along a beach caused by wave erosion.

Which type of fault produce a proper fault scarp?

The best scarps will form along normal faults, because: Normal faults typically have a steeper dip than reverse faults, which makes for a more impressive scarp.

How is a composite scarp formed?

A ‘composite fault-line scarp’ results from a combination of erosion and faulting. Erosional scarps result from vertical incision or from the headward enlargement of pediments.

What is a fault scarp quizlet?

A fault scarp is a small step or offset on the ground surface where one side of a fault has moved vertically with respect to the other. It is the topographic expression of faulting attributed to the displacement of the land surface by movement along faults.

What is a fault line?

A fault line is a fracture along which the crust has moved. Stresses in the crust along New Zealand’s plate boundary have broken it into separate fragments or blocks that move relative to each other along fault lines.

What are the 3 fault types?

There are three main types of fault which can cause earthquakes: normal, reverse (thrust) and strike-slip.

Where are scarps found?

Most of the previously known lobate scarps were found in Apollo Panoramic Camera photographs that covered only part of the lunar equatorial region. The locations of the lobate scarps are plotted on the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) global topographic model of the Moon.

What is a scarp geology quizlet?

What is a scarp? the trace of a fracture called a normal fault, where a portion of crust slides down the fault surface.

What is the definition of scarp in geography?

A steep slope; specif., an escarpment or cliff extending along the edge of a plateau, mesa, etc. … (earth science, geography) To cut, scrape, erode, or otherwise make into a scarp or escarpment. To scarp the face of a ditch or a rock.

Is hypocenter and focus the same?

The hypocenter is the point within the earth where an earthquake rupture starts. … Also commonly termed the focus.

What type of fault is the San Andreas Fault?

strike-slip fault – a fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a right lateral fault.

What is overthrust fault in geography?

1. overthrust fault – a geological fault in which the upper side appears to have been pushed upward by compression. reverse fault, thrust fault. inclined fault – a geological fault in which one side is above the other.

What is the origin of a scarp?

scarp (n.) steep slope, 1580s, from Italian scarpa slope, probably from a Germanic source, perhaps Gothic skarpo pointed object, from Proto-Germanic *skarpa- cutting, sharp (source also of Middle High German schroffe sharp rock, crag, Old English scrf cave, grave), from PIE root *sker- (1) to cut.

What do you mean by scrap?

1 scraps plural : fragments of discarded or leftover food. 2a : a small detached piece a scrap of paper. b : a fragment of something written, printed, or spoken scraps of conversation. c : the least bit not a scrap of evidence.

What is scarp in Tagalog?

Translation for word Scarp in Tagalog is : ungos.

What are the 5 types of faults?

There are different types of faults: reverse faults, strike-slip faults, oblique faults, and normal faults. In essence, faults are large cracks in the Earth’s surface where parts of the crust move in relation to one another.

What causes fault lines?

Faults are cracks in rock caused by forces that compress or stretch a section of Earth’s crust. … These plates slide under or slide past one another, stressing the rock along the edges of each plate.

What type of fault are the San Andreas and Hayward faults?

right-lateral strike-slip faults The San Francisco Bay area is crossed by several right-lateral strike-slip faults of the San Andreas fault zone. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60 and 70, respectively, and persist to the base of the crust.

What is a head scarp?

The head is the upslope portion of the landslide. The scarp, the steeply inclined failure surface with exposed soil and rock, marks the top of a landslide. … A scarp is a steep (nearly vertical) region of exposed soil and rock at the head of the landslide where the failure surface ruptures the ground surface.

What fault is caused by compression?

reverse fault Compressional stress, meaning rocks pushing into each other, creates a reverse fault. In this type of fault, the hanging wall and footwall are pushed together, and the hanging wall moves upward along the fault relative to the footwall. This is literally the ‘reverse’ of a normal fault.

How is a thrust fault formed?

Thrust and Reverse faults form by horizontal compressive stresses and so cause shortening of the crust. Because the hangingwall moves up relative to the footwall, most of these faults place older rocks over younger rocks. Younger over older relations can occur when previously deformed rocks are thrust faulted.

What is a fault quizlet earth science?

Fault. A crack in the Earth’s surface where slabs of crust slip past each other. Stress. A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume. Tension.

What is a fault quizlet?

fault. A fault is a break in a rock in which movement has taken place. Normal Fault. When areas of the Earth are pulled apart (tension/tensile stress) a normal fault is formed.

What is dip slip?

Dip-slip faults are inclined fractures where the blocks have mostly shifted vertically. If the rock mass above an inclined fault moves down, the fault is termed normal, whereas if the rock above the fault moves up, the fault is termed reverse. A thrust fault is a reverse fault with a dip of 45 degrees or less.