The juxtaglomerular apparatus functions to maintain blood pressure and to act as a quality control mechanism to ensure proper glomerular flow rate and efficient sodium reabsorption. The urethra extends from the bladder to the surface of the body. It consists of an epithelium-lined lumen and a smooth muscle layer. What does the Juxtaglomerular secrete?
The afferent arteriole in this region contains specialised secretory cells (smooth muscle cells) called juxtaglomerular cells, that secrete renin. These cells do two things: They monitor blood pressure, by measuring how much the arteriole wall is stretched.

How does juxtaglomerular cells work?

Juxtaglomerular cells (JG cells), also known as granular cells are cells in the kidney that synthesize, store, and secrete the enzyme renin. … Juxtaglomerular cells secrete renin in response to a drop in pressure detected by stretch receptors in the vascular walls, or when stimulated by macula densa cells. Which hormone is secreted by juxtaglomerular cells?
hormone renin The juxtaglomerular cells synthesize the enzyme-hormone renin. Renin is released in response to a drop in either salt concentration (sensed by osmoreceptors in the macula densa) or blood pressure (sensed by mechano- or baroreceptors in the afferent arteriole).

What are foot processes?

The foot processes known as pedicels that extend from the podocytes wrap themselves around the capillaries of the glomerulus to form the filtration slits. The pedicels increase the surface area of the cells enabling efficient ultrafiltration. Podocytes secrete and maintain the basement membrane. Do JG cells secrete erythropoietin?

The juxtaglomerular cells of the kidneys secrete erythropoietin.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

Where is the macula densa?

distal convoluted tubule It is located near the vascular pole of the glomerulus and its main function is to regulate blood pressure and the filtration rate of the glomerulus. The macula densa is a collection of specialized epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule that detect sodium concentration of the fluid in the tubule.

How can I increase my renin levels naturally?

Normally, eating too much salt suppresses the release of renin. Thus, in healthy, non-salt-sensitive people, reducing salt can raise renin levels [10]. Cutting back on salt is also beneficial for salt-sensitive people, whose blood pressure rises in response to salt intake [28].

How JGA regulates the kidney function?

Regulation involving Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: In kidneys, the JGA acts as a Multi Hormonal renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS). When the glomerular blood flow decreases JG cells activates and releases renin. Renin converts angiotensin in blood to angiotensin 1 and further to angiotensin 2.

Does angiotensin cause vasoconstriction?

The effect of angiotensin II on vasoconstriction takes place in systemic arterioles. Here, angiotensin II binds to G protein-coupled receptors, leading to a secondary messenger cascade that results in potent arteriolar vasoconstriction.

What is the renal corpuscle made up of?

Do juxtaglomerular cells have Baroreceptors?

The juxtaglomerular cells of the af- ferent arteriole act as high-pressure baroreceptors and are able to detect changes in blood pressure. … Activation of the intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism results in the secretion of renin and increased formation of ANG II.

Do juxtaglomerular cells produce erythropoietin?

The glycoprotein hormone erythropoietin (EPO) is the pri- mary humoral regulator of red blood cell formation in mam- mals (77–79, 81, 149). … In the adult kidney, renin is produced by juxtaglomerular (JG) cells that are located in the media layer of afferent arterioles at the entrance into the glomerulus (56, 151).

Are juxtaglomerular cells Chemoreceptors?

In the arteriole walls we see juxtaglomerular cells which secrete renin. … These are tall cells that act as chemoreceptors (osmoreceptors) and respond to changes in the solute content of the filtrate in the tubule lumen. Juxtaglomerular cells – sense blood pressure.

What is Juxtaglomerular complex?

The juxtaglomerular apparatus (also known as the juxtaglomerular complex) is a structure in the kidney that regulates the function of each nephron, the functional units of the kidney. The juxtaglomerular apparatus is named because it is next to (juxta-) the glomerulus.

Where does ADH act in the kidney?

ADH acts upon the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules of nephrons to increase water reabsorption. It causes an increase in the number of aquaporins in order to allow for this.

How does aldosterone increase blood pressure?

Aldosterone causes an increase in salt and water reabsorption into the bloodstream from the kidney thereby increasing the blood volume, restoring salt levels and blood pressure.

Where is capsular space?

The slitlike space between the visceral and parietal layers of the capsule of the renal corpuscle; it opens into the proximal tubule of the nephron at the neck of the tubule. Synonym: bowmans space, filtration space.

What is the glomerulus?

The glomerulus, the filtering unit of the kidney, is a unique bundle of capillaries lined by delicate fenestrated endothelia, a complex mesh of proteins that serve as the glomerular basement membrane and specialized visceral epithelial cells that form the slit diaphragms between interdigitating foot processes.

Where is basement membrane?

The basement membrane is a thin, pliable sheet-like type of extracellular matrix, that provides cell and tissue support and acts as a platform for complex signalling. The basement membrane sits between epithelial tissues including mesothelium and endothelium, and the underlying connective tissue.

Where is renin produced?

the kidney Renin is an enzyme secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney.

What is the macula densa?

Abstract. Macula densa cells in the distal nephron, according to the classic paradigm, are salt sensors that generate paracrine chemical signals in the juxtaglomerular apparatus to control vital kidney functions, including renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin release.

Where is angiotensinogen synthesized?

the liver Angiotensinogen is synthesized and secreted mainly by the liver and is found in the α-globulin fraction of plasma. Moreover, it is also found in diverse tissues expressing local RAASs. Its synthesis is stimulated by glucocorticoids, thyroid hormone, estrogens, and ANG II.

What cell produces renin?

The main source of renin is the juxtaglomerular cells (JGCs), which release renin from storage granules. Besides the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the JGCs, there exist local RASs in various tissues.

Is renin a hormone?

Renin is a hormone secreted by the juxtaglomerular cells of the kidney; it interacts with a plasma protein substrate to produce a decapeptide prohormone angiotensin I.

Does macula densa release no?

Macula-densa production of superoxide anion (O2 ) has a vasoconstrictor role, with actions to quench the availability of NO (to form ONOO) and director constrictor action on afferent arterioles.

What is Conn’s syndrome?

Primary aldosteronism (also called Conn’s syndrome) is a rare condition caused by overproduction of the hormone aldosterone that controls sodium and potassium in the blood. The condition is treated with medications and lifestyle changes to control blood pressure, and in some cases surgery.

What foods block angiotensin?

Several food products like milk, gouda cheese, soybean, tofuyo fermented soybean food, peptides derived from egg white, peptides from Royal jelly, the edible mushroom (Tricholoma giganteum) and enzymatic hydrolysate of defatted canola meal have been found to be effective as ACE inhibitor.

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