The hypoglossal nerve innervates all the intrinsic muscles and all but one of the extrinsic muscles (genioglossus, styloglossus, and hyoglossus) of the tongue. The function of each muscle/muscle group is as follows: Genioglossus- Draw the tongue forward from the root. What does hypoglossal mean in medical terms?
Nerve, hypoglossal: The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. … The hypoglossal nerve supplies the muscles of the tongue. (The Greek hypo-, under and -glossal from Aglossa, the tongue = under the tongue).

What is the main function of CN XII?

The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) is exclusively a motor nerve carrying general somatic efferent fibers (GSE). It innervates all intrinsic and almost all extrinsic muscles of the tongue, as well as one suprahyoid muscle, the geniohyoid muscle. What does the Trochlear do?
The trochlear nerve is one of 12 sets of cranial nerves. It enables movement in the eye’s superior oblique muscle. This makes it possible to look down. The nerve also enables you to move your eyes toward your nose or away from it.

What part of brain controls tongue?

There is an area in the frontal lobe of the left hemisphere called Broca’s area. It is next to the region that controls the movement of facial muscles, tongue, jaw and throat. What is the hypoglossal canal?

The hypoglossal canal is located between the occipital condyle and jugular tubercle and runs obliquely forwards (posteromedial to anterolateral) allowing the hypoglossal nerve to exit the posterior cranial fossa.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the hypoglossal nerve?

The hypoglossal nerve enables tongue movement. It controls the hyoglossus, intrinsic, genioglossus and styloglossus muscles. These muscles help you speak, swallow and move substances around in your mouth.

What is the idiopathic?

Idiopathic: Of unknown cause. Any disease that is of uncertain or unknown origin may be termed idiopathic. For example, acute idiopathic polyneuritis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, idiopathic scoliosis, etc.

What is the function of Abducens nerve?

Cranial nerve six (CN VI), also known as the abducens nerve, is one of the nerves responsible for the extraocular motor functions of the eye, along with the oculomotor nerve (CN III) and the trochlear nerve (CN IV).

Is hypoglossal sensory or motor?

Nerves in Order Modality
Glossopharyngeal Branchial Motor Visceral Motor Visceral Sensory General Sensory Special Sensory
Vagus Branchial Motor Visceral Motor Visceral Sensory Special Sensory
Spinal Accessory Branchial Motor
Hypoglossal Somatic Motor

What nerve helps you swallow?

What is the third nerve?

oculomotor nerve The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve (CN III). It allows movement of the eye muscles, constriction of the pupil, focusing the eyes and the position of the upper eyelid. Cranial nerve III works with other cranial nerves to control eye movements and support sensory functioning.

What is the 9th cranial nerve?

glossopharyngeal nerve The glossopharyngeal nerve is the 9th cranial nerve (CN IX). It is one of the four cranial nerves that has sensory, motor, and parasympathetic functions. It originates from the medulla oblongata and terminates in the pharynx.

What is the 12 cranial nerves?

The 12 Cranial Nerves

What is CN IV palsy?

Congenital Trochlear nerve palsy is a common cause of congenital cranial nerve (CN) palsy. Patients with congenital CN IV palsies may compensate for diplopia with variable head positioning; chin-down head posture is seen in bilateral CN IV palsy and contralateral head tilt is typically seen in unilateral CN IV palsy.

What causes 4th cranial nerve palsy?

In adults, the most common cause of fourth nerve palsy is injury. The injury may seem minor. Fourth nerve injury can occur with injuries that cause whiplash or concussions. Another common cause is from poor blood flow related to diabetes.

How common is Trochlear nerve palsy?

The annual incidence of trochlear nerve palsy was found to be 5.73 per 100,000 per year. [2] In several studies, it has been observed that this entity is much more common in the male gender. [5] This may be due to a higher incidence of head trauma in males.

What part of the brain can you live without?

cerebellum In the words of researcher and neurologist Jeremy Schmahmann, it’s the “Rodney Dangerfield of the brain” because “It don’t get no respect.” It’s the cerebellum. Even though the cerebellum has so many neurons and takes up so much space, it is possible to survive without it, and a few people have.

What part of the brain controls sleep?

The hypothalamus, a peanut-sized structure deep inside the brain, contains groups of nerve cells that act as control centers affecting sleep and arousal.

What part of the brain controls the eyes?

Occipital lobe Occipital lobe. The occipital lobe is the back part of the brain that is involved with vision.

What nerves travel through hypoglossal canal?

Hypoglossal Nerve This is the motor nerve for the oral tongue. It emerges from the skull through the hypoglossal canal in the occipital bone. As it emerges it is medial to the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery, and cranial nerves IX, X, and XI.

Why is the Trochlear nerve unique?

The trochlear nerve is unique among the cranial nerves in several respects: It is the smallest nerve in terms of the number of axons it contains. It has the greatest intracranial length. It is the only cranial nerve that exits from the dorsal (rear) aspect of the brainstem.

How do you know if you have hypoglossal nerve?

The hypoglossal nerve is tested by examining the tongue and its movements. At rest, if the nerve is injured a tongue may appear to have the appearance of a bag of worms (fasciculations) or wasting (atrophy). The nerve is then tested by sticking the tongue out.

What nerve controls the tip of your tongue?

The hypoglossal nerve is a motor nerve, and it controls the muscles of the tongue that allow for speech and swallowing.

What causes a deviated tongue?

When the motor cortex in the brain is damaged, the hypoglossal nerve, which is a pure motor nerve innervating the muscles of the tongue, will be defective. Therefore, the tongue will have a tendency to turn away from the midline when extended or protruded, and it will deviate toward the side of the lesion.

Is the Abducens nerve sensory or motor?

The abducens nerve is a purely somatic motor nerve, It has no sensory function. It innervates the lateral rectus muscle, an extraocular muscles of the eye, which is responsible for the abduction of the eyes on the same (ipsilateral) side.

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