Cementoblasts are of mesenchymal origin in the tooth germ. As with bone, cementogenesis starts with the deposition of an irregular collagenous matrix with an interfibrillar matrix, termed cementoid.

What do Cementocytes do?

Cementum is a mineralized tissue covering the tooth root that functions in tooth attachment and posteruptive adjustment of tooth position.

What is Cementoclast?

A multinucleated giant cell similar to an osteoclast that destroys cementum.

Where are Cementicles found?

Cementicles are spherical calcified bodies lying free in the periodontal membrane. They may also be incorporated within the cementum or the alveolar bone or even within the bone marrow spaces of the tension side of drifting or moved teeth.

What is Sharpey’s fibers?

Sharpey’s fibres (bone fibres, or perforating fibres) are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong predominantly type I collagen fibres connecting periosteum to bone. … Each fibre is accompanied by an arteriole and one or more nerve fibres. Scottish anatomist William Sharpey described them in 1846.

Where is the apex of the tooth located?

The apex is located on the tip of the root, or on the pointed end of it. Different teeth have a different number of roots. For example, the incisors have only one root and one apex. Teeth that have two roots have two apexes and so on.

What are Cementocytes?

Cementocytes are cementoblasts enclosed in a self-generated matrix. Following matrix mineralization, cementoblasts lose their secretory ability and become cementocytes.

What is fenestration and dehiscence?

Fenestration is the condition, in which the bony coverage of the root surface is lost, and the root surface is only covered by the periosteum and gingiva. In such lesions, marginal bone is intact. When this bone defect spreads toward the marginal bone, it is called dehiscence.[1]

Is cementum harder than bone?

The cementum contains the periodontal ligament that attaches the tooth to the bone. The hard but porous tissue located under both the enamel and cementum of the tooth. Dentin is harder than bone. The tough, shiny, white outer surface of the tooth that is visible.

What is Odontoclasts?

A cell responsible for the resorption of dentine and cementum. They are usually associated with the normal physiological resorption of the roots of the primary (deciduous) dentition prior to exfoliation. Occasionally there may be pathological odontoclastic resorption of the roots of a permanent tooth.

Where are the osteocytes?

Between the rings of matrix, the bone cells (osteocytes) are located in spaces called lacunae. Small channels (canaliculi) radiate from the lacunae to the osteonic (haversian) canal to provide passageways through the hard matrix.

What are Ameloblasts?

Ameloblast: One of a group of cells originating from the ectoderm from which the dental enamel is developed; an enamel cell. The ameloblasts cover the papilla of the enamel organ.

Why do teeth corrode?

Corrosion. This occurs chemically when acidic content hits the tooth surface such as with certain medications like aspirin or vitamin C tablets, highly acidic foods, GERD, and frequent vomiting from bulimia or alcoholism.

What are the types of Cementicles?

There are 3 types: Free cementicle – not attached to cementum. Attached (sessile) cementicle – attached to the cementum surface (also termed exocementosis) Embedded (interstitial) cementicle – with advancing age the cementum thickens, and the cementicle may become incorporated into the cementum layer.

What are the types of Hypercementosis?

Tooth group Hypercementosis type
discrete moderate
Maxillary molars 2 1
Mandibular molars 2 1
Maxillary premolars 1 1

What is the periosteum?

The periosteum is a complex structure composed of an outer fibrous layer that lends structural integrity and an inner cambium layer that possesses osteogenic potential. During growth and development it contributes to bone elongation and modeling, and when the bone is injured, participates in its recovery.

Where do Sharpey’s fibers come from?

Sharpey’s fibres (bone fibres, or perforating fibres) are a matrix of connective tissue consisting of bundles of strong collagenous fibres connecting periosteum to bone. They are part of the outer fibrous layer of periosteum, entering into the outer circumferential and interstitial lamellae of bone tissue.

What is alveolar bone?

The alveolar process, which is also called the alveolar bone, is the thick ridge of bone which contains the tooth sockets. The alveolar bone is located on the jaw bones which hold the teeth. In humans, these bones that contain the teeth are the maxilla and the mandible.

What is the apex of tooth?

Most teeth have cone shaped root canals that taper from the crown to the root end of the tooth. When a tooth does not close at the root end of the tooth it is called an “open apex”. Apexification forms a hard tissue barrier at the end of the root, allowing the root canal to be sealed in a more normal manner.

Do molars fall out?

The last sets of baby teeth to go are the canines and primary second molars. The canines are usually lost between the ages of 9 and 12 years old, while the primary second molars are the last baby teeth that your child will lose. These final sets of teeth are usually shed between the ages of 10 and 12.

What is the root apex?

The root apical meristem, or root apex, is a small region at the tip of a root in which all cells are capable of repeated division and from which all primary root tissues are derived. … They greatly increase the surface area of the root and facilitate the absorption of water and minerals from the soil.

What is dentine?

dentin, also spelled dentine, in anatomy, the yellowish tissue that makes up the bulk of all teeth. It is harder than bone but softer than enamel and consists mainly of apatite crystals of calcium and phosphate.

What are teeth made of?

Human teeth are made up of four different types of tissue: pulp, dentin, enamel, and cementum. The pulp is the innermost portion of the tooth and consists of connective tissue , nerves, and blood vessels, which nourish the tooth.

What is a Hypercementosis in dentistry?

Hypercementosis is a non-neoplastic condition characterised by excessive deposition of cementum on the roots of teeth. 1. It may affect a single tooth or multiple teeth.

What is bundle bone?

Bundle bone is a histologic term for the portion of the bone of the alveolar process that surrounds teeth and into which the collagen fibers of the periodontal ligament are embedded. It can also be referred to as alveolar bone proper.

Is lamina dura radiopaque?

The lamina dura surrounds the tooth socket and provides the attachment surface with which the Sharpey’s fibers of the periodontal ligament perforate. On an x-ray a lamina dura will appear as a radiopaque line surrounding the tooth root. An intact lamina dura is seen as a sign of healthy periodontium.

What is osseous crater?

Osseous Craters: Craters are cup- or bowl-shaped alveolar. defects in inter-alveolar bone with bone loss approxi- mately equal on the contiguous roots or the concavities. present in the crest of inter-dental alveolar bone and are. confined within the facial and lingual bony walls.

What does cementum feel like?

An important property of this material that covers the root surface is that, much like the enamel, cementum has no nerves and hence no feeling if it is exposed.

Is cementum softer than dentin?

Though cementoblasts are somewhat of a mystery, it is known that cementum is yellow in color and softer than dentin. Its chemical makeup is similar to that of bone — but unlike bone, cementum is avascular (not supported by blood vessels).

What does cementum look like?

Cementum is avascular, receiving its nutrition through its own imbedded cells from the surrounding vascular periodontal ligament. The cementum is light yellow and slightly lighter in color than dentin. It has the highest fluoride content of all mineralized tissue. Cementum also is permeable to a variety of materials.