What is the purpose of hydrocracking?

Hydrocracking is usually performed on heavy gas oils and residues, to remove feed contaminants (nitrogen, sulfur, metals) and to convert them into lighter fractions including diesel gasoils. What is the difference between hydrocracking and catalytic cracking?
The basis of catalytic cracking is carbon rejection, while hydrocracking is a hydrogen addition process. Catalyst cracking uses an acid catalyst, while hydrocracking uses a metal catalyst on acid support. Another differnce is that catalyst cracking is an endothermic process while hydrocracking is an exothermic process.

What is hydrocracking catalyst?

Hydrocracking is a two-stage process combining catalytic cracking and hydrogenation, wherein heavier feedstocks are cracked in the presence of hydrogen. The reaction typically involves a reactor section, gas separator, scrubber for sulfur removal, and product fractionator. Why is hydrocracking more effective than FCC?
In a refinery, the hydrocracker upgrades VGO through cracking while injecting hydrogen. This yields a high volume of high-quality diesel and kerosene product. This is in contrast to the FCC, which uses the same feed (VGO) but produces more and better-quality gasoline.

What is the by product of hydrocracking?

The major products from hydrocracking are jet fuel and diesel, but low-sulfur naphtha fractions and LPG are also produced. All these products have a very low content of sulfur and other contaminants. Why is catalytic cracking cheaper than thermal cracking?

What is Catalytic Cracking. Catalytic cracking is the breakdown of large compounds into small hydrocarbons using an acid catalyst. This cracking process can be done at a less temperature and pressure condition. Therefore, the operating of the processing unit is much easier than that of thermal cracking.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What does a hydrotreater do?

The purpose of a hydrotreater unit is primarily to remove sulfur and other contaminants from intermediate streams before blending into a finished refined product or before being fed into another refinery process unit.

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What are the two methods of cracking?

Cracking is primarily of two types – thermal cracking and catalytic cracking.

What is mild hydrocracking?

Mild hydrocracking (MHC) is catalytic cracking in the presence of hydrogen and operating at ‘mild’ hydrogen partial pressures (in comparison to conventional hydrocracking). Unlike hydrotreating, where hydrogen is used to break C-S and C-N bonds, mild hydrocracking uses hydrogen to break C-C bonds.

Who invented hydrocracking?

Between 1925 and 1930, Standard Oil of New Jersey collaborated with I.G.Farbenindustrie of Germany to develop hydrocracking technology capable of converting heavy petroleum oils into fuels. Such processes required pressures of 200 – 300 bar and temperatures of over 375 °C and were very expensive.

What is the purpose of guard reactor in hydrocracking?

How is hydrogen used in hydrocracking?

automobile and jet fuel increased, hydrocracking was applied to petroleum refining. This process employs hydrogen gas to improve the hydrogen-carbon ratio in the cracked molecules and to arrive at a broader range of end products, such as gasoline, kerosene (used in jet fuel), and diesel fuel.

What is visbreaking process?

Visbreaking is a non-catalytic thermal process that converts atmospheric or vacuum residues via thermal cracking to gas, naphtha, distillates and visbroken residue. Atmospheric and vacuum residues are typically charged to a visbreaker to reduce fuel oil viscosity and increase the distillate yield in the refinery.

What is the hydrotreating process?

Hydrotreating is the reaction of organic compounds in the presence of high pressure hydrogen to remove oxygen (deoxygenation) along with other heteroatoms (nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine).

What is HCU unit in refinery?

In a Refinery the Hydrocracking Process which occurs in the Hydrocracker Unit (HCU) is a type of hydro processing operation where heavy oil is cracked in the presence of a catalyst and Hydrogen to give cleaner fuels.

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What is cat cracker definition?

1. cat cracker – a chemical reactor for converting oils with high boiling points into fuels with lower boiling points in the presence of a catalyst. catalytic cracker. chemical reactor – an apparatus for holding substances that are undergoing a chemical reaction.

Where is naphtha from?

Naphtha (/ˈnæpθə/ or /ˈnæfθə/) is a flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixture. Mixtures labelled naphtha have been produced from natural gas condensates, petroleum distillates, and the distillation of coal tar and peat. In different industries and regions naphtha may also be crude oil or refined products such as kerosene.

Why is FCC important?

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes used in petroleum refineries. It is widely used to convert the high-boiling point, high-molecular weight hydrocarbon fractions of petroleum crude oils into more valuable gasoline, olefinic gases, and other products.

What is the use of gas oil?

Today, gas oil is a mainly used as a commercial fuel in many industries for the purpose of powering machinery, generators and for vehicles used off-road, including those used in the agricultural, construction and marine sectors to name but a few.

What is the use of light cycle oil?

Cycle oil is a light lubricating oil suited for use on bicycles and similar devices. It is a liquid residue produced in the petroleum industry when catalytic cracking is employed to convert heavy hydrocarbon fractions remaining from earlier stages of crude oil refining into more valuable lighter products.

Why is bitumen not used as a fuel?

Bitumen itself is a black and very sticky liquid. It’s also highly viscous and so full of carbon that it cannot be used for combustion (unlike gasoline, diesel and jet fuel).

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How important is catalytic cracking in petroleum industry?

Catalytic cracking is an important process in the oil industry where petroleum vapor passes through a low-density bed of catalyst, which causes the heavier fractions to ‘crack’ producing lighter more valuable products. In the petrochemicals industry they are used for producing polyolefins on a very large scale.

What are the three conditions needed for catalytic cracking?

Catalytic cracking uses a temperature of approximately 550°C and a catalyst known as a zeolite which contains aluminium oxide and silicon oxide. Steam cracking uses a higher temperature of over 800°C and no catalyst.

How do you remove sulfur from diesel?

Hydrotreating is the most common method for removing sulfur from diesel fuel as of today. This process is very expensive. The cost of hydrotreating units depends on the performance and the required depth of processing, and in theory it can reach millions of US dollars.

What is Hydrorefining?

Hydrorefining is a well known process for upgrading a variety of hydrocarbon fractions. … The gaseous effluent from the first stage is scrubbed to remove ammonia, light hydrocarbons and hydrogen sulfide.

How do you remove sulfur from oil?

The removal of organosulfur compounds from crude oil is an important aspect of all countries to reduce air pollution. The sulfur compounds from gasoline are generally removed by treating it with an alkaline solution sodium plumbite.

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