Which drugs cause hyperprolactinemia?

Which drugs cause hyperprolactinemia?

The medications that most commonly cause hyperprolactinemia are antipsychotic agents; however, some newer atypical antipsychotics do not cause this condition. Other classes of medications that cause hyperprolactinemia include antidepressants, antihypertensive agents, and drugs that in- crease bowel motility.

What meds cause increase in prolactin?

The main drugs which induce hyperprolactinaemia are:

  • major tranquilisers – block dopamine binding sites.
  • metoclopramide – block dopamine binding sites.
  • tricyclic antidepressants – block catecholamine re-uptake.
  • reserpine – depletes catecholamines.

What is the most common cause of hyperprolactinemia?

One common cause of hyperprolactinemia is a growth or tumor on the pituitary gland called a prolactinoma. The tumor produces high levels of prolactin. These tumors can be large or small and are usually benign, meaning they are not cancerous.

Why do antidepressants cause hyperprolactinemia?

It is some evidence that antidepressants that inhibit serotonin reuptake can increase the prolactin level. This adverse effect has been called serotonin overactivity. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been reported as the most common cause of drug-induced hyperprolactinemia.

Why do antipsychotics cause increased prolactin?

Typical antipsychotics block dopamine inhibition of the pituitary and cause prolactin rise. Secretion of prolactin by the pituitary is under inhibitory control via dopamine from the hypothalamus. Interference with dopamine secretion or action leads to an increase in serum prolactin.

What happens when prolactin hormone increases?

Excess prolactin can cause the production of breast milk in men and in women who are not pregnant or breastfeeding. In women, too much prolactin can also cause menstrual problems and infertility (the inability to get pregnant). In men, it can lead to lower sex drive and erectile dysfunction (ED).

What causes high prolactin in females?

Causes of Abnormal Prolactin Levels Prolactinoma (a benign tumor in your pituitary gland that produces too much prolactin) Diseases affecting the hypothalamus(the part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland) Anorexia(an eating disorder) Drugs that are used to treat depression, psychosis, and high blood pressure.

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Which antipsychotics increase prolactin?

Conventional or typical antipsychotics are commonly associated with elevated prolactin serum levels, with haloperidol being the most potent drug in terms of its increasing prolactin levels. Amisulpride is another antipsychotic that can cause a significant increase in prolactin serum levels [38,39].

Can Paxil cause high prolactin levels?

After 3 weeks paroxetine treatment plasma prolactin levels were significantly higher than those seen either pre-treatment or after 1 week of treatment. In contrast, 1 week of paroxetine treatment did not significantly increase prolactin concentrations over pre-treatment values.

Can low vitamin D cause high prolactin levels?

Also vitamin D deficiency in prolactinoma patients associated with larger adenoma size and higher prolactin level. Finally, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was a statistically significant predictor of prolactinoma size but not prolactin levels.

What are the signs and symptoms of hyperprolactinemia?

A person with hyperprolactinemia may experience:

  • long or irregular cycles.
  • anovulation (when an egg is not released during a menstrual cycle.
  • amenorrhea (absence of periods)
  • oligomenorrhea (irregular periods)
  • infertility.
  • the production and discharge of breast milk.
  • sexual side effects.
  • hirsutism (abnormal hair growth)

Can anxiety cause high prolactin levels?

The highest levels occur during sleep and shortly after you wake up. Prolactin levels also get higher during times of physical or emotional stress.

Can Wellbutrin cause hyperprolactinemia?

In our opinion, prolactin levels may increase during bupropion use because of the aris- ing bupropion metabolites. The release of dopamine may be inhibited either by bupropion or its metabolites (8).

Does serotonin increase prolactin?

Serotonin also increases prolactin release, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause hyperprolactinemia. This may contribute to the sexual side effects commonly associated with SSRI use.

Can Prozac cause hyperprolactinemia?

It revealed a significant number of studies describing that all SSRIs (paroxetine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, etc.) are associated with prolactin abnormalities (hyperprolactinemia) and/or manifest galactorrhea, amenorrhea, and breast tenderness.

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Do all antipsychotics cause hyperprolactinemia?

First-generation antipsychotics pose the greatest risk of causing this adverse effect; however, second-generation antipsychotics, particularly risperidone and paliperidone, also often increase prolactin secretion.

Can antipsychotics cause Prolactinoma?

Antipsychotic drug therapy, e.g., risperidone, can be associated with endocrine abnormalities, including an increase in serum prolactin level (sPrl) due to a drug-induced benign pituitary tumor (prolactinoma).

Why does verapamil cause hyperprolactinemia?

In them we demonstrate that the increase in PRL due to verapamil is due to decreased tuberoinfundibular generation of DA and that the effect is specific to the phenylalkylamine class of calcium channel blockers, suggesting mediation by N-type cal- cium channels.

How does high prolactin make you feel?

Symptoms from the high prolactin levels include discharge of milk from the breast (galactorrhoea) and breast tenderness. These symptoms are more common in women than men. High prolactin levels can also affect the function of the ovaries or testes by interfering with the hormones that control these glands.

What are the side effects of high prolactin levels?

Symptoms include irregular or absent menstrual periods, infertility, menopausal symptoms (hot flashes and vaginal dryness), and, after several years, osteoporosis (thinning and weakening of the bones). High prolactin levels can also cause milk discharge from the breasts.

Does prolactin inhibit dopamine?

Prolactin’s primary function in the human is assisting in the development and maturation of the breast during pregnancy and the subsequent production of milk during lactation. Prolactin is a unique anterior pituitary hormone, as its release is under tonic inhibitory control by dopamine.

Does prolactin cause weight gain?

High levels of prolactin can also result in weight gain and neuropsychological disturbances. The size of the tumor correlates with the amount of prolactin secreted. Larger tumors can cause mass effects by compression of local structures.

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What level of prolactin indicates a tumor?

A prolactin level above normal obtained without excessive venipuncture-induced stress confirms the diagnosis. Prolactin levels associated with stress or dopamine antagonists are usually below 100 g/dl. A prolactin level greater than 250 g/dl usually indicates the presence of a prolactinoma.

Is prolactinoma curable?

Prolactin causes a woman’s breasts to secrete milk after pregnancy. Tumors in prolactin-secreting cells of the pituitary cause too much prolactin to get into the bloodstream. Prolactinomas are rare and occur in 1 or 2 people in 10,000. Most are curable.

What antipsychotics do not increase prolactin?

Now we know that atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, sertindole, and ziprasidone are not associated with significant prolactin increase.

Does risperidone increase prolactin?

A substantial number of studies have demonstrated that the treatment of schizophrenia with risperidone may cause a substantial plasma prolactin increase and an unacceptably high incidence of prolactin related symptoms (PRS), such as amenorrhea, galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and sexual dysfunction [8, 9].

Does Seroquel increase prolactin?

However, several studies have shown that quetiapine does not increase prolactin level to the same extent as do other antipsychotic medications.

Can Xanax cause high prolactin levels?

Alprazolam decreased cortisol and GH levels but had no effect on prolactin.

Can Xanax increase prolactin levels?

Unlike other benzodiazepines, alprazolam can increase serum prolactin.