Who were Ictinus and Callicrates?

Callicrates and Ictinus were the architects of the Parthenon, the largest Doric temple on the Greek mainland. According to the inscription on the building, the construction was begun in 447 bc.

What was Ictinus known for?

Ictinus, also spelled Iktinos, (flourished 5th century bc), Greek architect, one of the most celebrated of Athens, known for his work on the Parthenon on the Acropolis, the Temple of the Mysteries at Eleusis, and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae.

What is Iktinos and kallikrates?

The Parthenon. … The architects were Iktinos and Kallikrates (Vitruvius also names Karpion as an architect) and it was dedicated to the goddess Athena Pallas or Parthenos (virgin). The temple’s main function was to shelter the monumental statue of Athena that was made by Pheidias out of gold and ivory.

What was the Propylaea used for?

Propylaea is the name given to monumental gates or entranceways to a specific space, usually to a temple or religious complex and as such they acted as a symbolic partition between the secular and religious parts of a city.

Who built Parthenon?

In 447 B.C., some 33 years after the Persian invasion, Pericles commenced building the Parthenon to replace the earlier temple. The massive structure was dedicated in 438 B.C.

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What did Iktinos design?

Parthenon Archaeological Site at Bassae of Phigaleia Temple of Epikourios Apollon Hierum de Demter Ictinus / Structures Ictinus, or Iktinos (fl. C5 bc). Distinguished architect active in Periclean Athens, he (with Callicrates) designed the Parthenon (447432 bc), and wrote a description of the building (with Carpion) that has not survived.

Is there a temple for Athena?

The temple of Athena Nike (Athena as a goddess of victory) is the smallest temple at the Acropolis in Athens, placed at its southwest corner, at the edge of a high cliff (see images above).

What was important about the Erechtheion location?

The Erechtheion (or Erechtheum) is an ancient Greek temple constructed on the acropolis of Athens between 421 and 406 BCE in the Golden Age of the city in order to house the ancient wooden cult statue of Athena and generally glorify the great city at the height of its power and influence.

What is Parthenon now?

The Parthenon was significantly damaged in 1687, when the Venetians, led by Francesco Morosini, attacked Athens. … Today they are in the British Museum, where they are known as the Elgin Marbles or Parthenon Marbles. Other sculptures from the Parthenon are in the Louvre Museum in Paris and in Copenhagen.

Is the Parthenon Doric or Ionic?

The Parthenon combines elements of the Doric and Ionic orders. Basically a Doric peripteral temple, it features a continuous sculpted frieze borrowed from the Ionic order, as well as four Ionic columns supporting the roof of the opisthodomos.

How many Parthenon’s are there?

The Parthenon has exerted its authority over western architecture for centuries. These are 6 spectacular large-scale modern replicas of the classical temple. The Parthenon of Acropolis in the Greek capital of Athens is by far the most famous ancient Greek monument surviving today.

Who destroyed the Parthenon?

On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment during a siege of the Acropolis. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures.

What Stoa means?

stoa, plural Stoae, in Greek architecture, a freestanding colonnade or covered walkway; also, a long open building, its roof supported by one or more rows of columns parallel to the rear wall. The Stoa of Attalus at Athens is a prime example.

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What does the word Propylaea mean?

Often propylaea. a vestibule or entrance to a temple area or other enclosure, especially when elaborate or of architectural importance. Also propylon.

Is the Propylaea Roman?

In ancient Greek architecture, a propylaea, propylea or propylaia (/prpli/; Greek: ) is a monumental gateway. The prototypical Greek example is the propylaea that serves as the entrance to the Acropolis of Athens.

Why was the Parthenon built for Athena?

The residents of Athens constructed the Parthenon at the time when they were at the height of their dominance. The Parthenon was mainly constructed as a temple for the Goddess Athena who was the chief deity worshipped by the residents of Athens.

Is the Parthenon a wonder of the world?

Today, the Parthenon is an international symbol of Greek civilization and the temples of the Acropolis have become some of the world’s most famous architectural landmarks. The Athens Acropolis is a UNESCO World Heritage site.

What is Athena the god of?

Athena, also spelled Athene, in Greek religion, the city protectress, goddess of war, handicraft, and practical reason, identified by the Romans with Minerva. She was essentially urban and civilized, the antithesis in many respects of Artemis, goddess of the outdoors.

Why is Phidias important?

Phidias, also spelled Pheidias, (flourished c. 490430 bce), Athenian sculptor, the artistic director of the construction of the Parthenon, who created its most important religious images and supervised and probably designed its overall sculptural decoration. … Little is known about Phidias’s life.

Who built Roman architecture?

Architecture was a very serious tradition in ancient Rome. Rome’s first great architect was Vitruvius, who in the 1st century BCE wrote Rome’s first major treatise on architecture: De Architectura.

What were gods plays dedicated to?

god Dionysus The Dionysia (/danasi/) (Greek: ) was a large festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central events of which were the theatrical performances of dramatic tragedies and, from 487 BC, comedies. It was the second-most important festival after the Panathenaia.

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Who was the ugliest god?

Facts about Hephaestus Hephaestus was the only ugly god among perfectly beautiful immortals. Hephaestus was born deformed and was cast out of heaven by one or both of his parents when they noticed that he was imperfect. He was the workman of the immortals: he made their dwellings, furnishings, and weapons.

Who destroyed Athena’s temple?

It was destroyed by the Persians in 480 BC, during the Destruction of Athens. It was located at the center of the Acropolis plateau, probably on the remains of a Mycenaean palace. The complex is sometimes described by the name Drpfeld foundations, after the archaeologist who found the location of the temple.

What does Medusa do that angers Athena?

Terms in this set (20) What does Medusa do or what happens to her that angers Athena? She is raped inside Athena’s temple.

Who destroyed the Erechtheion?

The Erechtheion underwent extensive repairs and reformation for the first time during the 1st century B.C., after its catastrophic burning by the Roman general Sulla.

Why is there a olive tree at the Erechtheion?

Poseidon went first and raised his trident, smashing it on a rock of the Acropolis, thus, producing salt water. Athena went second and offered an olive tree, a gift the citizens of Athens deemed useful and beautiful; therefore, she became the patron of the city, which was named after her.

What makes the Erechtheion unique?

The Erechtheion is an intricate temple. … The temple is unusual in that it incorporates two porches (prostaseis); one at the northwest corner which is supported by tall Ionic columns, and one at the south-west corner which is supported by six massive female statues, the famous Caryatids.

What was the Golden Age of Greece?

The golden age of Athenian culture is usually dated from 449 to 431 B.C., the years of relative peace between the Persian and Peloponnesian wars. After the second Persian invasion of Greece in 479, Athens and its allies throughout the Aegean formed the Delian League, a military alliance focused on the Persian threat.

What happened to the Athena Parthenos?

The cult statue, begun in 447 BCE and dedicated in 438 BCE, would remain the great city’s symbol for a thousand years until, in Late Antiquity, it disappeared from the historical record, possibly taken to Constantinople and there later destroyed.

Why won’t Britain return the Elgin marbles?

Boris Johnson won’t return 2,500-year-old Elgin Marbles to Greece as they had been ‘legally acquired’ by British Museum. The 2,500-year-old sculptures were removed from the Acropolis more than 200 years ago and have long been the subject of dispute.